Direction of the "Regulations & Compliance" series, JoRC & Dalloz

April 13, 2022

Editorial responsibilities : Direction of the "Regulations & Compliance" series, JoRC & Dalloz

► Full Reference : Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Les Buts Monumentaux de la Compliance (Compliance Monumental Goals), series "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, 2022, to be published.


► This book in a few words: Seize Compliance by its mind: its Monumental Goals. The notion of "monumental goals" of Compliance was proposed in 2016 by Marie-Anne Frison-Roche📎!footnote-1901. It has become explicit in the texts and the resolution of cases, for example to fight against climate change , make human beings effectively equal, force to be extraterritorially vigilant about suppliers. 

Compliance Monumental Goals are targeted ex ante by regulations, contracts, CSR, and international treaties. Creating an alliance between business and political authorities, aiming for a new form of sovereignty. The presence in litigation of these Monumental Goals of global dimension renews the responsibilities and the Judge office. Describing and conceiving these Monumental Goals makes it possible to anticipate Compliance Law, which is more powerful every day.


In parallel, a book in English Compliance Monumental Goals, is published in the same collection. 



This book follows a cycle of colloquia 2021 organized by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and by its universities partners. 



This volume is the continuation of the books dedicated to Compliance in this collection.

Read the presentations of the other books on Compliance in this collection:

📕  Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Les outils de la Compliance2020

📕 Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Pour une Europe de la Compliance2019

📕 Borga, N., Marin, J.Cl. Roda, J.-Ch. (ed.), Compliance : Entreprise, Régulateur, Juge, 2018

📕 Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Régulation, Supervision, Compliance2017

📕 Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Internet, espace d'interrégulation, 2016


📕  Read the presentations of the other titles of the collection.


► General construction of the Book 

After an Introduction on the definition of Monumental Goals and the normative anchoring of Compliance Law therein, a first Title is devoted to the "radioscopy" of this notion, in itself and branch of Law by branch of Law.

A second Title aims to measure how the Monumental Goals are questioned by a crisis situation, for example in a health situation, but not in that example, if they aggravate it and must be discarded, or if, on the contrary, they are exactly conceived for this hypothesis. of crisis, risks, catastrophes and that it is advisable to exploit them, in particular in order, in this "test", to benefit from the alliance between the political authorities, public powers and crucial operators.

Once made explicit and tested, the Monumental Goals must find a sure way to be taken into account. This is why a third Title aims to measure in principle and in practice how the Proportionality method can help the integration of Compliance, thus giving a new dimension to the Law without dragging it into insecurity and illegitimate grabbing of powers.

But because Compliance Monumental Goals express a very great ambition, the question of a bearable, even beneficial relationship with the international competitiveness of companies, standards and systems must be opened. This is the object of the fourth Title.  

Finally, because the Monumental Goals express by nature a new ambition of the Law in a world which must not give up in what could be the prospect of its abyss, the fifth Title has for object the relationship between the Monumental Goals of Compliance and Sovereignty.



► Read the foreword summarizing all the articles of the book. 


► Understand the book through the Table of Contents and the summaries of some articles:

📝 Frison-Roche, M.-A., Ancrer les Buts Monumentaux de la Compliance au cœur des système politiques et économiques par le Droit ; 



📝 Beaussonie, G. Droit pénal et Compliance font-ils système ?

📝 Le Fur, A.-V., Intérêt et raison d’être de l’entreprise : quelle articulation avec les buts monumentaux de la compliance ?  

📝Maistre, R.-O.,  Quels buts monumentaux pour le Régulateur dans un paysage audiovisuel et numérique en pleine mutation ?

📝La Garanderie, D. de, Sur les buts monumentaux de la compliance sociale

📝 Peicuti, C. et Beyssade, J., La féminisation des postes à responsabilité dans les entreprises comme But de la Compliance. Exemple du secteur bancaire 

📝 Petit, B., L'agencement des buts monumentaux du droit du travail : un ensemble mouvant et souvent paradoxal   

📝 Huglo, Ch.,  À quelles conditions le Droit climatique pourrait-il constituer un But Monumental prioritaire ?



📝 Bär-Bouyssière, B., Les obstacles pratiques à la place effective de la proportionnalité dans la Compliance

📝 Frison-Roche, M.-A., Proportionnalité et Compliance 

📝 Mendoza-Caminade, A., Proportionnalité et évaluation. L'exemple du Droit de la propriété intellectuelle  

📝Rapp, L., Proportionnalité et Normativité  

📝 Segonds, M., Compliance, proportionnalité et sanctions. L'exemple des sanctions prononcées par l'Agence française anticorruption



📝 Bonnet, J., La crise, occasion de saisir la Compliance comme mode de communication des autorités publiques  

📝 Frison-Roche, M.-A., Place et rôle des entreprise dans la création et l'effectivité du Droit de la Compliance en cas de crise 

📝 Oumedjkane, A., Tehrani, A. et Idoux, P., Normes publiques et Compliance en temp de crise : les Buts Monumentaux à l'épreuve. Eléments pour une problématique  

📝 Sudres, N., Gel hydroalcoolique, Covid-19 et Compliance :  des insuffisances de la démarche de conformité à l’émergence d’îlots de compliance  



📝 Deffains, L’enjeu économique de compétitivité internationale de la compliance  

📝 Frison-Roche, M.-A., Appréciation du lancement d'alerte et de l'obligation de vigilance au regard de la compétitivité internationale  



📝 Bismuth, R., Compliance et Souveraineté : relations ambigües

📝 Boursier, M.-A., Les Buts Monumentaux de la Compliance : mode d'expression des Etats

📝 Pottier, S., Pour une compliance européenne, vecteur d'affirmation économique et politique

📝 André, Ch., Les buts monumentaux de la compliance, vecteurs de valeurs sociales "communes". Regards d'un pénaliste 

📝 Frison-Roche, M.-A. , Un principe de proximité systémique pour que le Droit de la Compliance remplisse sa vocation mondiale



April 21, 2021

Editorial responsibilities : Direction of the "Regulations & Compliance" series, JoRC & Dalloz

► General reference : Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Les outils  de la Compliance, série "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) & Dalloz, 2021.



📘 In parallel, the book is published in an English version Compliance Tools, co-edited by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance and Bruylant. 


📅  This book follows a cycle of conferences organized by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance and by its partner universities



📚  This volume is the continuation of the books dedicated to Compliance in this collection, published before and after this book.

Read the other books ' presentations of the collection about Compliance:

📕 Frison-Roche, M-A. (dir.), Les Buts Monumentaux de la Compliance , 2022

📕 Frison-Roche, M.-A. (dir.), La juridictionnalisation de la Compliance2022

📕 Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Pour une Europe de la Compliance2019

📕 Borga, N., Marin, J.Cl. Roda, J.-Ch. (ed.), Compliance : Entreprise, Régulateur, Juge, 2018

📕 Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed), Régulation, Supervision, Compliance2017

📕 Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Internet, espace d'interrégulation, 2016


Read the other titles' presentations of the collection.



► General presentation of the book : The political dimension of Compliance Law resides in the monumental goals that it aims for and which define it. These goals are internalized in "crucial operators", who willingly or by force must structure themselves and act to achieve "monumental goals", as set by public authorities and which may coincide with the interests of the enterprise. This one designs and controls the Ex Ante reorganization that this implies, under the public authorities supervision. Enterprises, even if their activities are not regulated, thus become transparent and must show the Compliance Tools effectively deployed to effectively achieve these goals. It is a major transformation of economic life in all countries because the Compliance Tools are adopted everywhere and have a global effect.

These appear to be very diverse but their unity is profound and bringing it out has the practical benefit of producing a legal regime that is as unified as possible, while allowing their adaptation country by country, sector by sector, enterprise by enterprise. 

This book aims to understand these Compliance Tools to better anticipate the assessment that will be made by Regulators, Supervisors and Courts, as well as the new conceptions of the authors of legal texts which impose new ones every day, while companies must also imagine the most appropriate Compliance Tools.

This collective work specifically apprehends those on which we have few studies when we handle them on a daily basis, such as risk mapping or training or rights, letting more familiar tools shine through more transversal contributions, such as compliance programs, sanctions, whistleblowing or many sorts of settlements, agreements of public interest.

A first chapter takes a legal and economic approach. A second chapter emphasizes the role of risk mapping. A third chapter draws the game of incentives. A fourth chapter identifies the expertise required. A fifth chapter insists on geographic significance. A sixth chapter details the measurement of effectiveness. A seventh chapter explores training. The eighth chapter examines technological tools. The concluding article leads to rights.



► Read the general introduction of the book (in French).



► Read the presentations of the articles of the book:

📝Amico, Th., La Compliance ou le passage de l'ex post à l'ex ante: une révision copernicienne pour l'avocat pénaliste ?

📝Banck, A., La maturité de l’usager de l’outil de la Compliance, premier critère du choix de l’outil adéquat

📝Benzoni, L., and Deffains, B., Approche économique des outils de la Compliance: finalités, effectivité et mesure de la Compliance "subie" et "choisie"

📝Burlingame, R., Coppens, KK, Power, N. & Lee, D.H., Compliance : lutte internationale contre la corruption et gestion du risque

📝Calandri, L., Incitation(s) et autorégulation(s): quelle place pour le Droit de la Compliance dans le secteur audiovisuel?

📝Causse, H., La formation en Compliance, par et au-delà de la formation classique

📝Frison-Roche, M.-A., Décrire, concevoir et corréler les outils de la Compliance, pour en faire un usage adéquat

📝Frison-Roche, Construire juridiquement l'unité des outils de la Compliance à partir de la définition du droit de la Compliance par ses "buts monumentaux"

📝Frison-Roche, M.-A., Compliance et incitations, un couple à propulser

📝Frison-Roche, M.-A., Résoudre la contradiction entre incitations et sanctions sous le feu du Droit de la Compliance

📝Frison-Roche, M.-A., Dresser des cartographie des risques comme obligation et le paradoxe des "risques de conformité"

📝Frison-Roche, M.-A., Compliance : contenu et contenant du Droit de la Compliance 

📝Frison-Roche, M.-A.Les droits subjectifs, outils premiers et naturels du Droit de la Compliance

📝Galland, M.Le contrôle par le Régulation de l'effectivité des instruments de compliance

📝Granier, C., L'originalité normative de la Compliance by design

📝Guillaume, N., Cartographie des risques de compliance : premiers aperçus des enjeux, des limites et des bonnes pratiques

📝Gutierriez-Crespin, A., L’audit du dispositif de compliance : un outil clé pour en vérifier la robustesse

📝Koenigsberg, S. et Barrière, Fr, La construction de l'expertise de l'avocat en matière de compliance

📝Larouer, M., Les manifestations des mécanismes incitatifs dans le Droit français de la Compliance

📝Merabet, S.La morale by design

📝Pailler, L., Les outils technologiques, la Compliance by Design et le RGPD: la protection des données personnelles dès la conception

📝Racine, J.-B., La prégnance géographique dans le choix et l'usage des outils de la Compliance

📝Rapp, L., Théorie des incitations et gouvernance des activités spatiales

📝Roda, J.-C., Compliance by Design en antitrust: entre innovation et illusion

📝Salah, M., Conception et application de la Compliance en Afrique

📝Tardieu, H., Souveraineté des données et Compliance

📝Thouret, T., Formation et Compliance, deux outils corrélés de transmission d'information



March 24, 2021

Editorial responsibilities : Direction of the "Regulations & Compliance" series, JoRC & Dalloz

Full Reference: Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), La juridictionnalisation de la Compliance, série "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, 2022, to be published.


► This book in few words: Sanctions, controls, appeals, deals: judges and lawyers are everywhere in the Compliance mechanisms, creating unprecedented situations, sometimes without a solution yet available.  Even though Compliance was designed to avoid the judge and produce security by avoiding conflict. This jurisdictionalisation is therefore new. Forcing companies to prosecute and judge, a constrained role, perhaps against their nature. Leading to the adaptation of major procedural principles, with difficulty. Confronting arbitration with new perspectives. Putting the judge at heart, in mechanisms designed so that he is not there. How in practice to organize these opposites and anticipate the solutions? This is the challenge taken up by this book.


📘 In parallel, the English version of this book, Compliance Jurisdictionalisation, is published in the series co-published by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Bruylant. 



📅  This book comes after a  cycle of colloquia organised in 2021 by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and its Academic Partners.



This volume is the continuation of the books dedicated to Compliance in this collection.

► Read the presentations of the other books on Compliance in this collection:

📕 Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Les buts monumentaux de la Compliance, 2022

📕 Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Les outils de la Compliance2020

📕 Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Pour une Europe de la Compliance2019

📕Borga, N., Marin, J.-C.. Roda, J.-Ch. (ed.), Compliance : Entreprise, Régulateur, Juge, 2018

📕 Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Régulation, Supervision, Compliance2017

📕Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Internet, espace d'interrégulation, 2016


📕 Read the presentations of the other titles of the collection.


►  General presentation of the book: There have always been Judges and Lawyers in Compliance Law, in particular because this branch of Law is an extension of Regulatory Law in which they have a core place. This results from the fact that the decisions taken in respect of Compliance are contestable in Court, including Arbitration, those issued by the Company, such as those of States or Authorities, the Judge in turn becoming what Compliance Law is effective.

The novelty lies more in the phenomenon of "jurisdictionalisation", that is to say that the trial model penetrates all Compliance Law, and not only the Ex Post part that it includes. Moreover, it seems that this jurisdictionalisation influences the non-legal dimension of Compliance. This movement has effects that must be measured and causes that must be understood. Advantages and disadvantages that must be balanced. If only to form an opinion vis-à-vis Companies that have become Prosecutors and Judges of themselves and others ...: encourage this "Jurisdictionalisation of Compliance", fight it, perhaps influence it? In any case, understand it!


►  General construction of the book:

After an Introduction on the general phenomenon of the Compliance Jurisdictionalisation, its practical issues and its future (what it should not be and what it should be), the first Part is devoted to what is specific to Compliance Law. of Compliance: the transformation of companies into Prosecutors and Judges of themselves, even of others.

The second Part relates to Compliance general procedural Law, the procedure being the way between the dispute and the judgement. 

The third Part continues this journey to the judge and aims to measure the influence of the reasoning and requirements of Compliance Law in dispute resolution methods where it was not, with some exceptions, present, but where it has a great future: Arbitration.

Because trial and judicial decision are inseparable, because legal techniques and the Rule of Law should not be divided but compliance techniques could paradoxically be the weapon of their dissociation, because the power to judge and the procedures surrounding the latter must not be dissociated, because therefore Compliance mechanisms and the Rule of Law must be thought out and practiced then, the rise in power of one must be the sign of the rise in power of the other, and not the price of the 'weakening of the Rule of Law, the fourth Part relates to the Judges in the Compliance mechanisms and culture. 



 Read the foreword summarizing all the contributions of the book  



► Read the first presentations of the book through summaries of some of its articles in the IV parts:


📝 Frison-Roche, M.-A., Ne jamais exclure les Juges et les Avocats du Droit de la Compliance : la Juridictionnalisation de la Compliance comme bien le plus précieux



📝 Granier, C., La jurisprudence des entreprises instituées juges et procureurs d'elles-mêmes par le Droit de la Compliance

📝Augagneur, L.-M., Le traitement réputationnel par et sur les plateformes

📝Bruno, A.,  La façon dont les entreprises du secteur bancaire s'organisent et se 

📝Coulon, J.-M., La façon dont une entreprise fonctionne pour concrétiser le Droit de la Compliance : l'exemple du secteur de la construction

📝Bavitot, A., Le façonnage de l'entreprise par les accords de justice pénale négociés

📝Jourdan-Marques, J., L’arbitre, juge ex ante de la compliance ?

📝Lapp, Ch.,  La façon dont l'entreprise fonctionne pour concrétiser le Droit de la Compliance : Les statuts du process

📝Frison-Roche, M.-A., Le jugeant- jugé ; articuler les mots et les choses face à l'impossible conflit d'intérêts 

📝 Heymann, J., La nature juridique de la "Cour suprême" de Facebook

📝Latour, D., Les enquêtes internes au sein des entreprises

📝Merabet, S., Etre juge et ne pas juger

📝 Siproudhis, J.-B., Le transfert de responsabilité du régulateur et du juge vers l’entreprise : la démonstration par le système d’alerte



📝Cayrol, N., Des principes processuels en Droit de la Compliance

📝Frison-Roche, M.-A., Les outils de la Compliance au crible du Droit processuel

📝Linden, A., Motivation et publicité des décisions de la formation restreinte de la Commission nationale de l’informatique et des libertés (CNIL) dans une perspective de compliance

📝Frison-Roche, M.-A., Prolégomène pour le système probatoire du Droit de la Compliance

📝Scemla, S. et Paillot, D., La difficile appréhension des droits de la défense par les autorités de contrôle en matière de compliance

📝Schiller, S. , Un juge unique en cas de manquement international à des obligations de compliance ? 



📝Racine, J.-B., Compliance et Arbitrage : Problématique générale

📝Kessedjian, C.,  L'arbitrage au service de la lutte contre la violation des droits humain par les entreprises 

📝Audit, M., La position de l'arbitre en matière de compliance

📝Kleiman, E., Les objectifs de la compliance confrontés aux acteurs de l’arbitrage

📝Frison-Roche, M.-A., L'adossement de la Compliance à l'arbitrage international




📝Frison-Roche, M.-A., Le rôle du Juge dans le Droit de la Compliance

📝Morel-Maroger, J., La réception des normes de la compliance par les juges de l'Union européenne

📝O. Douvreleur, Compliance et juge du droit

📝Wennerström, E., Quelques réflexions sur la Compliance et la Cour européenne des droits de l'Homme




May 15, 2019

Editorial responsibilities : Direction of the "Regulations & Compliance" series, JoRC & Dalloz

► Full reference : Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Pour une Europe de la Compliance, serie "Régulations & Compliance", Dalloz & Journal of Regulation & Compliance, 2019, 124 pages. 


📚 ​read the presentation of the Series in which this book is published 

► Book Summary: This book is written in French. The topic is : "For the Europe of the Compliance".

See below its general presentation in English. 

The political dimension is intrinsic to the Compliance Law. Indeed, compliance mechanisms consist of internalizing in certains companies the obligation to implement goals of general interest set by Public Authorities. These public bodies control the Ex Ante reorganization that implies for these companies and punish Ex Post the possible structural inadequacy of these compagnies, becoming transparent for this purpose. 

This new mode of governance establishes a continuum between Regulation, Supervision, Compliance (book published in 2017) and renew the links between Companies, Regulators and Judges!footnote-1600

This political dimension must be increased: the Compliance Law of Compliance must today be used to build Europe.

One can observe not only the construction of the  European Compliance Law, object-by-object, sector-by-sector, purpose-by-purpose, but also the construction of the European Compliance Law that transcends and unifies them. Becoming independent of American Law and ceasing to be in reaction, even on the defensive, the Compliance Law contributes to the European project, offering it a higher ambition, that Europe can carry and, by this way, can carry the Europe itself, not only to preserve the European economy from corruption or money laundering, but by claiming the protection of nature and human beings.

This is why the book describes the "reasons and objectives" of the Europe of the Compliance, which makes it possible to describe, detect and even predict the ways and means.



AuthorsThierry BonneauMonique Canto-SperberJean-Jacques DaigreCharles DuchaineMarie-Anne Frison-RocheArnaud de La CotardièreKoen LenaertsJean-Claude MarinDidier MartinXavier MuscaPierre Sellal et Pierre Vimont.

Each mention of an author refers to a summary of his contribution. 


Read the book's foreword by Marie-Anne Frison-Roche, translated in English.

Read the working paper written in English by Marie-Anne Frison-Roche, base for her article published in French in the book : What the Law of Compliance can build relying of the European Humanist tradition.



May 22, 2018

Editorial responsibilities : Direction of the "Regulations & Compliance" series, JoRC & Dalloz

Référence complète : Borga, N., Marin, J.-Cl., Roda, J.-Ch. (dir.), Compliance : l'entreprise, le régulateur et le juge , Série Régulations & Compliance, 2018. 

Lire la table des matières de l'ouvrage.

Voir les ouvrages parus et à paraître dans cette Série.


Lire une présentation des articles contenus dans cet ouvrage :







Oct. 4, 2017

Editorial responsibilities : Direction of the "Regulations & Compliance" series, JoRC & Dalloz

► Fulll Reference : Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Régulation, Supervision, Compliance (English translation: "Regulation, Supervision, Compliance"), Paris, collection "Régulations", Dalloz, 2017, to be published.

This collective book is published in French but summaries of every article are available in English

Acces to book purchase order

Book presentation in English :

Regulation. Supervision. Compliance.

Three terms almost unknown to legal systems. Or at least considered as peculiar to Anglo-American legal systems: Regulation, Supervision, Compliance. So many expressions that would constitute Trojan horses by which the Common Law and american mechanisms would seize the other legal traditions to better bend European companies, especially banks, appropriating institutions, imposing strange methods.

Three words by which the invasion is carried out. Through the violence of repression and penalties of compliance, by the mildness of codes of conduct and corporate social responsibility. By laws as new as strange such as in France the law known as "Sapin 2" or the law instituting a "duty of vigilance" to companies whose failure would be to have successfully deployed internationally their activities.

One can have this defensive conception of Compliance, generating a "Compliance Law", produced by internalization in global economic operators of the Regulation Law, which are then subject to Supervision by Regulators, even though these firms are not regulated, as the Compliance does extend beyond supervised sectors (banks and insurance companies).

We can (and maybe must) have a more welcoming, and therefore more offensive, concept of Compliance. This can be the crucible of a relationship of supra-national Trust between these operators and regulators, the former being able to contribute as the latter to serving goals that all exceed them and whose fight against corruption and money laundering are only examples.

In this way, the issue is the construction of the European Compliance Law.


Authors :

  • Jean-Bernard Auby,
  • Jérôme Bédier,
  • Alain Bénichou,
  • Jean-Michel Darrois
  • Isabelle Falque-Pierrotin,
  • Marie-Anne Frison-Roche,
  • Benoît de Juvigny,
  • Jacques de Larosière,
  • Bruno Lasserre,
  • Arnaud de La Cotardière,
  • Jean-Claude Marin,
  • Didier Migaud,,
  • Yves Perrier,
  • Jean-Marc Sauvé.


Voir la présentation du cycle de conférences sur lesquelles s'est construit l'ouvrage.


Voir la présentation générale de la collection dans laquelle l'ouvrage est publié.


Utiliser le bon pour commander l'ouvrage.

April 22, 2016

Editorial responsibilities : Direction of the "Regulations & Compliance" series, JoRC & Dalloz

Complete references :  Frison-Roche, M.-A. (dir.), Internet, espace d'interrégulation, Serie "Régulations", coll. "Thèmes & Commentaires", Dalloz, Paris, 2016.

Read the presentation of the book (written in French).

Read the presentation of the  authors of the contributions (written in French)

"Regulate the Internet".

Some argue that any regulation is contrary to the nature of digital. Others argue that this is indispensable, for its economic deployment and for public freedoms. Internet renews conceptions and practices. Notably those of the Law of the Regulation. Indeed, the Internet makes it possible to offer and obtain services that are in often regulated sectors: financial, audiovisual, healthcare, gaming. Moreover, they converge in new objects: the connected objects.

Often described as a "legal desert", digital appears as a kind of jumble of systems of various regulations that overlap, deform and contradict each other. In reaction, an "interregulation", de facto or de jure, in law more or less flexible, is in the process of being established. Who will be the Regulator: The States? The judge? The Internet users?

The future is open.

The book first determines the "Interregulation Needs" and then describes and conceives solutions for the interregulation of the digital space.

Read the presentation of the two articles written by Marie-Anne Frison-Roche:

     Thinking the world from the notion of "data"
     To draw the regulatory consequences of a rethinked world from the notion of "data"

The working papers which are the base of these articles are written in English.