Conferences [489]

Nov. 21, 2024

Conferences

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 Référence complète : M.-A. Frison-Roche, "Conclusion", in M.-A. Frison-Roche (dir.), Dans l’espace de justice, les pratiques juridictionnelles au service du futur, in Cour de cassation, Cycle de conférences "Penser les pratiques juridictionnelles au service d’un espace de justice", 21 novembre 2023

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🧮Consulter le programme complet de cette manifestation

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 Présentation de la conférence : La conception tient compte du fait que l’évènement vient quasiment en dernier dans le cycle. Ont été précédemment traitées les « pratiques juridictionnelles » en ce qu’elles sont « au service d’un espace de justice » européen (février 2023), éclairé (mars 2023), attractif (juin 2023), interactif (septembre 2023), pacificateur (décembre 2023).

La problématique de la conférence par d’un constat : aujourd’hui l’on apporte à des juges des prétentions qui portent directement sur le futur. Certes, dans son office classique le juge aborde l’avenir des situations litigieuses, mais ce sont aujourd’hui l’avenir des systèmes dans leur entièreté qui, à travers une dispute ou une demande, leur est parfois soumis, et une solution demandée. La possible présence des générations futures en est un signe parmi d’autres.

L’espace de justice peut paraître inadaptée pour des procès si gigantesques, et par leur objet et par leur retentissement.

Sans doute faut-il distinguer selon les juges et certains juges peuvent paraître plus familiers que d’autres aux enjeux systémiques que le futur porte avec lui. Peut-être la prudence du juge doit-il le conduire à ne pas l’entraîner par exemple dans le maniement des sanctions à user de son pouvoir sur ce futur, en oubliant que le futur contient par nature une part d’inconnu, prudence fondamentale que le principe de la légalité des délits et des peines exprime.

Mais le futur n’est pas non plus une page blanche et le juge, sans inventer celui-ci, peut contrôler la cohérence de ceux qui écrivent la loi, s’il est juge constitutionnel, ceux qui écrivent les contrats et les engagements. Pour remplir son office, que les parties prenantes demandent, les juges doivent penser et traiter en dialogue ce nouvel objet systémique qui se présente aujourd’hui devant eux : le futur.

Pour l’appréhender, les juges puisent dans les pratiques juridictionnelles disponibles, en ajustent d’autres, les articulent entre elles, dans des méthodes renouvelées.

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April 24, 2024

Conferences

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Discussion" ("Discussion"), in E. Renaud & L. Turcat (dir.), Regards sur la justice, 10ième séance, École normale supérieure (ENS), Paris, Salle Dussane, 45 rue d’Ulm, 75005 Paris, April 24, 2024

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🧮See the full programme of this event

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 Presentation of the conférence

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April 2, 2024

Conferences

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Discussion" ("Discussion"), in C. Arnaud, O. de Bandt et B. Deffains (dir.), Nouveaux défis - Regards croisés : Droit, Économie et Finance. Quel Droit face au Changement Climatique ?, Banque de France (French Central Bank) and CRED/Paris Panthéon-Assas University, Paris, Centre de Conférence de la Banque de France, April 2, 2024

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🧮See the full programme of this event

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 Presentation of the conférence

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Feb. 9, 2024

Conferences

🌐follow Marie-Anne Frison-Roche on LinkedIn

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► Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Préalable : ce qu'est un engagement" ("Prerequisite: the Commitment"), in L. Aynès, M.-A. Frison-Roche, J.-B. Racine and E. Silva-Romero (dir.), L'arbitrage international en renfort de l'obligation de Compliance (International Arbitration in support of the Compliance Obligation)Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Institute of World Business Law of the ICC (Institute), Conseil Économique Social et Environnemental (CESE), Paris, February 9, 2024

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🧮see the full programme of this event

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🌐consult on LinkedIn a general presentation of this event, which links to a presentation of each speech (in French)

____

🧱consult the scientific direction sheet of this event, which gives an account of the various speeches made

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🔲see the slides used to support the presentation (in French)

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🎤see a presentation of the conference "Préalable : ce qu'est l'Obligation de Compliance" ("Prerequisite: what is the Compliance Obligation"), given at the same symposium

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🎤see a presentation of the conference "Le renforcement des engagements de Compliance par le renvoi Ex Ante à l'arbitrage international" ("Reinforcing Compliance commitments by referring Ex Ante to International Arbitration") which was finally not pronounced but will be the subject of an 📝article in the forthcoming book 📘Compliance Obligation 

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► Presentation of the conference: Having defined the Compliance Obligation in "Préalable : ce qu'est l'Obligation de Compliance" ("Prerequisite: what is the Compliance Obligation"), I set out to define what a commitment is.

No one doubts that commitments, as words, constitute facts that can engage the liability of companies if there are inconsistencies or lies. The question today is whether a commitment can constitute a legal act, binding in ex ante.

Companies make commitments either to fulfil their legal Compliance obligations, which is simply obeying the law, or to express their own wishes, either for themselves or for others. The cases are often confused, even though the scope is not the same.

If the commitment takes the form of a contract, Compliance is concerned if the contract is used as an Ex Ante Compliance Tool📎!footnote-3383, either if the entire contract has this purpose, or if a compliance clause is inserted, and an arbitration clause may be linked to it.

The commitment, a concept that comes more from the Economics of Regulation, was conceived between a Regulatory Authority and a Company: it is the unilateral decision of the Authority that gives legal force to the commitment. Case law confirms this (Conseil d'État (French Council of State)📎!footnote-3384 and Conseil constitutionnel (French Constitutional Council)📎!footnote-3385) and this is particularly clear in Competition Law, but it is also true of the convention judiciaire d'intérêt public - CJIP (French Judicial Public Interest Agreement).

If commitment is central to Compliance, particularly Vigilance, it is because Compliance Law is an extension of Regulatory Law📎!footnote-3386. The company is forcibly instituted by the Compliance regulator, particularly in value chains, or on digital spaces (DSA).

In drawing up a plan, the company is fulfilling its legal obligation. But if we were to consider that it is a commitment, then we would also have to consider that the plan is the result of its will, that it must consult the stakeholders in its preparation, but that the source of the plan is its will: the provisions are not stipulations, are not applications of the law, but unilateral voluntary provisions.

In this respect, and because its source is the will of the company (which does not prevent its co-construction), a plan could contain a "graduated offer" of arbitration.

This offer could be included in commitments that are less regulated by law, such as those made in the context of CSR.

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Feb. 9, 2024

Conferences

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► Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Préalable : ce qu'est l'obligation de Compliance" ("Prerequisite: the Compliance Obligation"), in L. Aynès, M.-A. Frison-Roche, J.-B. Racine and E. Silva-Romero (dir.), L'arbitrage international en renfort de l'obligation de Compliance (International Arbitration in support of the Compliance Obligation)Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Institute of World Business Law of the ICC (Institute), Conseil Économique Social et Environnemental (CESE), Paris, February 9, 2024

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🧮see the full programme of this event

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🌐consult on LinkedIn a general presentation of this event, which links to a presentation of each speech (in French)

____

🧱consult the scientific direction sheet of this event, which gives an account of the various speeches made

____

🔲see the slides used to support the presentation (in French)

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🎤see a presentation of the conference "Préalable : ce qu'est un engagement" ("Prerequisite: the Commitment"), given at the same symposium

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🎤see a presentation of the conference "Le renforcement des engagements de Compliance par le renvoi Ex Ante à l'arbitrage international" ("Reinforcing Compliance commitments by referring Ex Ante to International Arbitration") which was finally not pronounced but will be the subject of an 📝article in the forthcoming book 📘Compliance Obligation 

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► Presentation of the conference: I have first dealt with the very definition of the Compliance Obligation.

After showing that the relationship between Compliance Law and International Arbitration will naturally develop, because the companies subject to it are international, because they contractualise their legal Compliance obligations and because Compliance is being jurisdictionalised📎!footnote-3379, the arbitrator being the natural judge since he is a global judge and the judge of the contract, I pointed out that Compliance Law does not simply entrust arbitration with the task of preventing evils, such as corruption pacts, but that it creates positive obligations for companies: to detect and prevent behaviour whose systemic effect is deleterious.

This culture of compliance is achieved either through compliance contracts📎!footnote-3380 (which outsource the handling of audits, alerts, the drawing up of plans, etc.), or through compliance clauses📎!footnote-3380, which are inserted into distribution or supply contracts, etc.; arbitration clauses are linked to these. Thus, the alliance between Compliance and Contract is an indirect mode of alliance between Arbitration and Compliance Obligation.

The obligation of Compliance which then takes concrete form consists for the company not in making effective Ex Ante all the regulations which apply to it (conception of conformity which is at once unreasonable, blind and impossible), but in making its best efforts, which it must make visible (see Compliance Evidence System📎!footnote-3381) to achieve Monumental Goals.

These Monumental Goals are systemic. The aim is to protect systems from collapse (Negative Monumental Goals) or to make them better (Positive Monumental Goals)📎!footnote-3382. By making companies accountable, via this Ex Ante Law whose object is the future, the systemic evils of corruption, money laundering, discrimination, climate change and hatred are combated, thus finding substantial unity. The Positive Monumental Goals aim to engender sustainability, security, respect for human beings, etc. in systems, be they banking, financial, digital, climatic, etc.

The role of the Judge, and therefore also that of the Arbitrator, is renewed.

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Feb. 9, 2024

Conferences

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► Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Le renforcement des engagements de Compliance par le renvoi Ex Ante à l'arbitrage international" ("Reinforcing Compliance commitments by referring Ex Ante to International Arbitration"), in L. Aynès, M.-A. Frison-Roche, J.-B. Racine and E. Silva-Romero (dir.), L'arbitrage international en renfort de l'obligation de Compliance (International Arbitration in support of the Compliance Obligation)Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Institute of World Business Law of the ICC (Institute), Conseil Économique Social et Environnemental (CESE), Paris, February 9, 2024

____

🧮see the full programme of this event

____

🌐consult on LinkedIn a general presentation of this event, which links to a presentation of each speech (in French)

____

🧱consult the scientific direction sheet of this event, which gives an account of the various speeches made

____

🔲see the slides used to support the presentation (in French)

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📝This conference and the Working Paper on which it is based are to be linked with the article to be published in the book📘Compliance Obligation 

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🎤see a presentation of the conference "Préalable : ce qu'est l'Obligation de Compliance" ("Prerequisite: what is the Compliance Obligation"), given at the same symposium

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🎤see a presentation of the conference "Préalable : ce qu'est un engagement" ("Prerequisite: the Commitment"), given at the same symposium

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► Presentation of the conference: It was initially planned that I would speak on the subject Le renforcement des engagements de Compliance par le renvoi Ex Ante à l'arbitrage international (Reinforcing Compliance commitments through the Ex Ante referral to International Arbitration), but it was agreed with the other organisers of the symposium that after defining the concept of the Compliance Obligation📎!footnote-3390 I would refocus my second speech, mentioned above, on what a Commitment is📎!footnote-3391, an essential prerequisite for dealing with the subject of International Arbitration in support of the Compliance Obligation. Developments on Reinforcing Compliance commitments through the Ex Ante referral to International Arbitration will appear in the forthcoming books: L'obligation de Compliance (in French), Compliance Obligation (in English). Nevertheless, if I had dealt with this subject, I would have raised the following points:

  • The inclusion of an offer of arbitration in the field of Compliance implies considering it in a contract as well as in a non-contractual commitment, and studying which category of Compliance Obligation the offer may apply to.
  • This insertion benefits from taking the form of a "graduated offer", in a crescendo organised by the company ex ante and offered to the stakeholders: conciliation, mediation and arbitration, in "circles of trust"📎!footnote-3387. This is supported by the current French amicable settlement policy.
  • The result was that I had to prepare a long "preliminary" discussion of what a "commitment" is, without which it seemed difficult to talk in concrete terms about the effective insertion of an offer of arbitration if we did not know whether such links or words had a constraining effect on the person issuing them in relation to the person benefiting from them. After discussions with the other speakers, it became clear that it would be more effective to give a talk devoted solely to the question of the legal definition of commitment. We therefore decided to allocate this second speaking slot to the notion of commitment. Since the written words do not have the same constraints, it will take up the initial construction, insisting on the different supports, either compliance contracts, or associations with compliance clauses, relating to different Compliance obligations, in particular on information or audit or Vigilance📎!footnote-3388, because the company must have the legal power corresponding to the mission that the State entrusts to it through Compliance📎!footnote-3389.
  • The offer must be carefully drafted to explain its purpose, and its organisation must prove the reality of this purpose: to give access to a judge to people affected by the company's activity, and not to block it.
  • This will therefore be available in detail in the forthcoming books:

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Feb. 1, 2024

Conferences

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Compliance et Responsabilité civile : comprendre et raison garder" ("Compliance and Civil Liability: understanding and keeping our heads"), in Droit de la compliance (Compliance Law)École nationale de la magistrature - ENM (French National School for the Judiciary) in collaboration with the École de Formation professionnelle des Barreaux du ressort de la cour d'appel de Paris - EFB (Paris Bar School), Paris, February 1, 2024.

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► This conference is given in French.

____

🧮see the full programme of this event (in French)

____

🌐consult on LinkedIn a general presentation of this event, which links to a presentation of each speech (in French)

____

🧱consult the scientific direction sheet of this event, which gives an account of the various speeches made

____

🔲see the slides used to support the presentation (in French)

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📝This conference and the Working Paper on which it is based are to be linked with the article to be published in the book📘Compliance Obligation 

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🎤see a presentation of the conference "Droit de la Compliance : tour d'horizon" ("Compliance Law: overview"), given at the same symposium

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 Presentation of the conference : It is difficult, even artificial, to separate the presentation of the relationship between Compliance Law and Civil Liability from the consideration given in Compliance to Criminal Liability, sanctions and the whole contractual organisation. But, if only for reasons of time, this will be done.

The chosen method consists of using decisions handed down either under Compliance Law, an emerging branch of Law of which an overview has been given before📎!footnote-3362, or under Special Liability Laws, such as Company Law (but here too the field of analysis is huge), or under Ordinary Civil Liability Law. The latter is often the preferred approach.

It always seems that civil liability and Compliance Law are both intimate and have a difficult relationship. To understand them, before embarking on crusades in one direction or another, it is technically necessary to look at the liabilities attached to the application of "compliance regulations" imposed on economic operators, who contractualise the resulting legal obligations and whose third parties may also rely on breaches on the grounds of civil liability. This is the first stage of the analysis. Much is made of the Vigilance technique. Even if this is the advances point of Compliance, we also need to look at the GDPR, the French co-called "Sapin 2" law, Anti-Corruption, etc.

However, civil liability is not the same depending on whether the obligation, legal and/or contractual, in relation to which it arises as a cause of action, gives rise, depending on the case, the text and the person, to an obligation of means or an obligation of result. If there is one principle to bear in mind, particularly in the mind of the judge, it is that, unless a text or clause provides otherwise, an obligation is an obligation of means.

This essential question raises the need to better define the "Compliance Obligation", which consists of prevention and detection, with the economic operator making his "best efforts" with regard to the monumental goals to which the various regulations (thus finding their unity) are normatively anchored. The Ex Ante evidential dimension thus comes to the fore.

In the second part of the analysis, which continues to be based on court decisions, we need to measure the "points of contact" between these "special compliance responsibilities" and the Ordinary Law of Civil Liability. Indeed, because this is a profound movement that runs through the entire legal system, expressing a social demand that distinguishes Western law from the rest of the world, Ordinary Liability Law has long had a preventive dimension and targets operators in a different way, not only because of their power, but also because of their "mission". This is expressly stated in the case law, and these points of contact do not justify opposing the two branches. It would only be if Compliance Law were confused with its instrument, "conformity", and if new principles were invented in an Ordinary Law, that clashes could arise.

In the third stage of the analysis, which can be applied to the principles at stake today, it should be remembered that while there is no general Compliance Obligation under Ordinary Law, which implies detecting and preventing for oneself and for others any breach of any applicable regulation likely to harm others, there is a principle of freedom, as the Conseil constitutionnel (French Constitutional Council) regularly reminds us. Unless we change the legal system so that people become nothing more than subjects who obey all regulations and let it be seen that they do so, with the judge's role being limited to punishing them for not doing so. Indeed, the principle of freedom remains the foundation both of the Ordinary Civil Liability Law (and not of repression, as in Chinese Law) and of the Special Law of Compliance (and not of conformity, as in Chinese law).

In conclusion, it appears that the evolution of Civil Liability, in particular due to the spirit of a Compliance Law that is articulated with it, is leading to a twofold movement: from Ex Post liability to Ex Ante responsibility📎!footnote-3363, and from Liability to Accountability.

To accompany this movement, alliances are being forged and must be fostered, which brings Compliance Law face to face with Competition Law, alliances often forged by contract and for which the role of the judge is being renewed, particularly through mediation techniques.

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Feb. 1, 2024

Conferences

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____

 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Droit de la compliance : tour d'horizon" ("Compliance Law: Overview"), in Droit de la compliance (Compliance Law)École nationale de la magistrature - ENM (French National School for the Judiciary) in collaboration with the École de Formation professionnelle des Barreaux du ressort de la cour d'appel de Paris - EFB (Paris Bar School), Paris, February 1, 2024.

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► This conference is given in French

____

🧮see the full programme of this event (in French)

____

🌐consult on LinkedIn a general presentation of this event, which links to a presentation of each speech (in French)

____

🧱consult the scientific direction sheet of this event, which gives an account of the various speeches made

____

🔲see the slides used to support the presentation (in French)

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🎤see a presentation of the other speech about "Compliance et Responsabilité civile : comprendre et raison garder" ("Compliance and Civil Liability: understanding and keeping our heads"), given at the same symposium

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 Presentation of the conference: Compliance Law is mysterious in itself, because it is still in creation📎!footnote-3241, because its presence and power are felt, but it is difficult to grasp it. It is necessary, however, because it deals with the most important, even the most dramatic, facts and carries with it the greatest ambitions. Magistrates must also "make the effort" to participate in the "adventure of Compliance Law", because it affects, and even overturns, all subjects, and because the Prosecutor and the Judge play an increasing role in it📎!footnote-3242.

Because the purpose of this conference is to introduce the two days of a training course designed for magistrates and open to lawyers, it only provides an "overview" of, so that we do not get lost in the sprawling regulations, the global mechanisms and the political ambitions that permeate them.

Therefore, without going into any of the subjects, it is about opening up four ways of entering what is a branch of Law that is being born before our eyes:

1. Understanding Compliance Law through "regulations"

2. Understanding Compliance Law through "tools"📎!footnote-3243

3. Understanding Compliance Law through "methods"

4. Understanding Compliance Law through "goals"📎!footnote-3244

The four approches are legitimate because the four dimensions are articulated in the legal system, notably case law.

But the more positive Law is consolidated, the more its normativity through the goals that give normativity, or even a simplicity without which the whole is not humanly controllable.

These Goals are Monumental and Europe bears them more and better than other areas of the world📎!footnote-3245.

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1

🕴️M.-A. Frison-Roche📝Naissance d'une branche du Droit : le Droit de la Compliance (Birth of a branch of Law : Compliance Law), to be published.

3

🕴️M.-A. Frison-Roche (ed.), 📘Compliance Tools, 2020.

4

🕴️M.-A. Frison-Roche (ed.), 📘Compliance Monumental Goals, 2023.

Jan. 12, 2024

Conferences

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► Full Reference : M.-A. Frison-Roche, "Conclusion. Compliance et contrats publics : une alliance naturelle" ("Conclusion. Compliance and Public Contracts: a natural alliance"), in M.-A. Frison-Roche, C. Gilles & A. Oumedjkane (dir.), Compliance et contrats publics (Compliance and public contracts)Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC)Centre de recherches et d’études administratives de Montpellier (CREAM) and Centre d’Études et de Recherches Comparatives Constitutionnelles et Politiques (CERCOP) of the Montpellier University, Faculté de droit et de science politique de Montpellier, 39 rue de l’Université, Amphiteatre C Paul Valéry, January 12, 2024

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🧮see the full programme of this event

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✏️read the notes taken on the spot to draw up the symposium conclusion

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🌐consult on LinkedIn a general presentation of this event, which links to a presentation of each speech (in French)

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🧱consult the co-organisation sheet of this event, giving an account of the various speakers

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► English Summary of the conference: Firstly, it would appear that, as with all the contracts studied in the area of Compliance, public contracts are, for the public authorities or public companies, an instrument through which they implement the Compliance Obligation imposed on them by the laws and regulations. Public bodies involved in public contracts are particularly concerned because of the points of contact, even intimacy, between Compliance Law and the general interest. But the contract, whether public or private, remains in its classic conception what results from the expression of two wills which exchange their consents📎!footnote-3221.

 

Secondly, in terms of free will, public contracts can be the means by which public bodies and their co-contractors express their conception of what needs to be done to preserve the future, for example in environmental and social matters. On the contrary, the seemingly technical issue of exclusions from public contracts, whether they be automatic exclusions or optional exclusions, expresses the extent to which economically powerful players (public authorities, municipalities, public companies) take care of each other. In this respect, Compliance Law runs counter to Competition Law📎!footnote-3222 and profoundly affects Public Procurement Law.

 

But thirdly, the public contract, in that it expresses the general interest by its very nature, its ex ante nature reinforces regulatory action and the nature of Compliance as an extension of Regulation📎!footnote-3223. It appears to be the most appropriate instrument for this new branch of Law, without the need for it to be transformed. This underlines the extent to which Compliance Law must draw on classical Law, in this case Administrative Law.

 

Moreover, fourthly, the public contract appears to be the model for the Compliance Contract. The public contract is a model first of all because of the central place of the general interest. The "Monumental Goals" in which the substantive definition of  Compliance Law is anchored📎!footnote-3224 are a development of this. Admittedly, this concern for the general interest drives the public entity, but the "raison d'être" of companies more generally also incorporates it through "governance", profoundly renewed by Compliance.

The public contract is also a model because the contract is handled by a powerful party, in this case the public entity. The subject of Compliance Law is the powerful company, and only that company, chosen because it is powerful and because it uses that power to achieve the Monumental Goals. In this respect, the "exorbitant powers" that characterise the public contractor are reconstituted either by Compliance laws or by stipulations, which confer on all obliged or voluntary companies - by virtue of CSR, which has many points of contact with Compliance Law as long as it is not confused with obeying the applicable regulations (which is what "conformity" is)📎!footnote-3225 - a power over the co-contractor, or even over third parties, equivalent to that of the public entity📎!footnote-3235

The judge is the one who, through contractual litigation, both public and private, will bring to life these Monumental Goals desired by the State, carried by powerful entities (administration, companies), pledge of the Rule of Law📎!footnote-3228.

These include contractual mechanisms for information, audit, disclosure, control, collaboration, supervision, etc., through which the company, whether private or public, takes charge of the structure it has created, for example the value chain it masters📎!footnote-3226.

 

It can therefore be concluded that this logic of a public contract as an instrument of administrative action to achieve goals of general interest, now fully taken up in Compliance Law, must be acculturated into the Ordinary Contract Law and must be preserved in Public Contract Law, which presupposes a new balance with Competition Law, which for a long time carried within Public Law a contract model without concern for sustainability or the collective interest. To achieve this, dialogue between judges is essential. The Conseil d'État (French Council of State) and the Cour de cassation (French Court of cassation) set the example📎!footnote-3227.

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📝This conference will be followed by an article, "The public contract, model of the Compliance Contract", which will be published in the book 📘Compliance and contract.

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9

Conseil d'État (French Council of State) and Cour de cassation (French Court of cassation), 📗Du droit de la régulation au droit de la compliance : quel rôle pour le juge ?, La Documentation Française, 2024 (to be published).

Dec. 12, 2023

Conferences

► Référence complète : M.-A. Frison-Roche, enregistrement et animation d'une série d'entretiens sur le Droit de la Compliance, in J.-Ph. Denis, Fenêtres ouvertes sur la gestion, Xerfi Canal, tenus le 12 décembre 2023, diffusés en 2024.

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► Présentation générale de la série, comprenant les entretiens successifs  : 🧱Compliance - un sujet de choix pour nouer Droit et Gestion : La distinction des disciplines est justifiée, le droit d'une part, la gestion d'autre part : c'est maltraiter la réalité que, notamment, de dissoudre l'une dans l'autre (ce que Jankélévitch appelait "la réduction par déplacement d'une discipline") car chacune doit conserver son ancrage.

Ceci posé, parce que la réalité ne se construit suivant les disciplines, si l'on veut rendre compte de celle-ci, ou au moins en tenir compte, par exemple de la réalité des entreprises, il faut que les disciplines se croisent.

La compliance est un parfait terrain pour cela.

Merci à Jean-Philippe Denis, professeur de gestion, qui est depuis toujours ouvert à ce dialogue, de l'avoir concrétisé plus encore, en permettant une série d'interviews à la croisée du Droit et de la Gestion sur le média Xerfi Canal.

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Dans un premier temps, 4 discussions ont été tenues entre Jean-Philippe Denis et moi-même sur les thèmes suivants :

  • 🎬sur la nécessité pratique de faire converger l'analyse juridique et l'analyse de gestionnaire lorsqu'il s'agit de comprendre, maîtriser, promouvoir la compliance. 
  • 🎬sur l'existence de différents systèmes de compliance selon les zones du mondes 
  • 🎬sur la "civilisation" de la Compliance
  • 🎬sur le fait que la Vigilance est la pointe avancée de la Compliance 

 

Puis, dans un second temps

  • 🎬avec 🕴️Jean-Baptiste Racine sur la manière dont l'arbitrage international est apte aujourd'hui à défendre les Buts Monumentaux de la Compliance, notamment les droits humains et les impératifs environnementaux.
  • 🎬avec 🕴️Stanislas Pottier de la façon dont les entreprises intègrent cet impératif de compliance, notamment dans sa dimension environnementale, participent à la construction européenne par cette voie, et arrivent à faire connaissance avec ce personnage assez nouveau pour elle, au moins en France : le juge.
  • 🎬 avec 🕴️Roch-Olivier Maistre du rôle que joue l'Arcom dans le nouveau système numérique qui se met en place, et quelle articulation se noue entre la Régulation et la Compliance, notamment pour mesurer en quoi la Compliance est un outil utile pour assurer une meilleure supervision des plateformes en ligne et lutter ainsi plus efficacement contre les phénomènes de manipulation de l’information et de haine en ligne.
  • 🎬avec 🕴️Eduardo Silva-Romero de l'importance grandissante de l'arbitrage international pour les entreprises, arbitrage qui intègre les intérêts des États et répond aux impératifs de Compliance.
  • 🎬avec 🕴️Christophe Lapp de la nécessité pratique de ne pas confondre la Compliance avec la simple conformité, notamment lorsque le juge est saisi, les Buts Monumentaux étant intégrés dans son raisonnement.
  • 🎬avec 🕴️Jacques Beyssade du rapport entre la gouvernance et la Compliance, illustré dans une banque mutualiste et plus particulièrement dans le recrutement et la promotion des femmes à des postes de responsabilité.

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🌐consulter sur LinkedIn une présentation générale de cette journée d'enregistrements, renvoyant à une présentation de chaque interview

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🔓consulter ci-dessous une présentation de chaque interview mené avec un expert en Droit sur un sujet particulier de Droit de la Compliance⤵️

Dec. 5, 2023

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► Référence complète : M.-A. Frison-Roche, "Articulation systémique entre Vigilance, Due Diligence, conformité et Compliance", in M. Mekki, M.-A. Frison-Roche et J.-Ch. Roda (dir.), La vigilance, pointe avancée de l'obligation de ComplianceJournal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) et Institut de Recherche Juridique de la Sorbonne (André Tunc - IRJS), Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, 12 place du Panthéon, salle 6, 5 décembre 2023.

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🧮consulter le programme complet de cette manifestation

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🚧lire le document de travail bilingue sur la base duquel la conférence a été élaborée

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consulter les slides accompagnant la conférence

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► Résumé de la conférence :

 

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Cette conférence sera suivie d'un article qui sera publié dans l'ouvrage L'obligation de Compliance.

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Nov. 30, 2023

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► Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Conclusion", in M. Boissavy, H. Dehghani-Azar, and M.-A. Frison-Roche (dir.), Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Conseil national des Barreaux (CNB)Compliance, vigilance et médiation (Compliance, Vigilance and Mediation), Amphitheatre of the Conseil national des Barreaux, November 30, 2023.

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🧮see the full programme of this event

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Oct. 4, 2023

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "L'avenir du Droit de la compliance" (The futur of Compliance Law), in Cour de cassation (French Court of cassation), La Nuit du Droit 2023, October 4, 2023. 

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🎥 Watch the video (in French)

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🧮read the full programme of this event

The Cour de cassation (French Court of cassation) had presented 4 successive themes insofar as they affect the future of Law: filiation, artificial intelligence, the environment and compliance.

The President of the Chambre sociale de la Cour de cassation (Social Chamber of the Court of Cassation) gave a presentation on Compliance and the essential role played by the Judge. Then, the Parquet général (Prosecutor General's Office) then asked Fabien Raynaud, Conseiller d'État, about the importance of 'systemic cases' in Compliance Law and the dialogue between judges that it implies, using the Youporn case currently being examined by the judges.

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 General presentation of the speech: As my work has been seminal for Compliance Law, I was asked about the future of Compliance Law.

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Oct. 2, 2023

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► Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, Participation à la Table ronde "Normes de Responsabilité Sociale des Entreprises (RSE & Devoir de Vigilance)" (Participation in the Round Table "Corporate Social Responsibility Standards (CSR & Duty of Vigilance)"), in Fribourg University, Journée du Droit, Fribourg University, Pérolles site, room C230, October 2, 2023.

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🧮see the full programme of this event

🎥​watch the video of this event (in French)

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🌐read the report written in French with photos, tags and links on LinkedIn and also with links to each the speech

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► General presentation of the event : This conference, build around 4 presentations and a debate between the speakers and then with the audience, aimed at explaining and understanding this fundamental movement and the new texts that express it in Switzerland, even if it is French law, such as the so-called 'Vigilance' law of 2017 and the draft European CS3D directive, because on the one hand it is a movement that begins with legal technique and on the other hand the texts in question are extraterritorial in scope, if only because of the notion of 'value chain'. In the first part of this round table, and to set the scene, I will outline the origin and content of the French 'Vigilance' law, the way in which the draft directive draws heavily on it, its relationship with Compliance Law, of which it constitutes the 'advanced point', and the decisive role it gives to the courts, in the general movement of the jurisdictionalisation of compliance. The purpose of this is to allow the discussion to get underway.

🕴️Idris Abdelkhalek, PhD candidate and lawyer, introduced the speakers and led the debate between them and the audience. He took questions from the audience on the intensity of the obligation weighing on companies, in particular between civil liability and criminal liability, between the obligation of means and the obligation of result, and on the way in which the duty of vigilance is applied to specific sectors such as defence.

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► Presentation of my speech : the subject of which was Presentation of French Vigilance law, European perspective and European Compliance System. My presentation was divided into four points. Firstly, I outlined the state of Law in France, in the novelty represented by the 2017 law known as the "Vigilance" law, whose principles are simple and strong, principles that are situated in the aims pursued, and the way in which this law inspires what is currently being negotiated: the CS3D Directive.

Secondly, I stressed the need for companies to master these often technically complicated corpus, especially if we take into account the link between Vigilance and the CSRD directive on sustainability reporting and extra-financial information. 

Thirdly, I have shown that an overall understanding can nevertheless be achieved, and that the technical nature of the 'tools' is better mastered if we place the duty of vigilance within Compliance Law, of which it constitutes the 'advanced point'. All of this anchors its legal normativity in the 'Monumental Goals' it serves, which in Europe are humanistic, since the aim is to protect, now but above all in the future because it is a branch of ex ante Law, the human beings involved in the systems (banking, finance, energy, digital, climate, etc.).

Fourthly, I emphasised that this understanding enables everyone to play their part: political and public authorities, businesses and stakeholders. Even more, and at the heart of the matter, the judge plays an essential role, even in countries with so-called 'continental' Law. I have used current cases as examples. This is just the beginning, and judges need to train, specialise and work in dialogue to achieve this.

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► Presentation of the other speakers contributions :

🕴️Marion Paradas, Ambassador of France to Switzerland and Liechtenstein, opened the conference and gave a general presentation of the theme. Ambassador Marion Paradas presented the international challenge represented by Law, illustrated here by the duty of vigilance. She emphasised that this is a major issue, both now and in the future, for Swiss companies and French companies based in Switzerland, particularly as this duty extends throughout the "value chain" and in view of the CS3D directive, which will also have consequences for both.

🕴️Isabelle Chabloz Waidacher, Professor at the Faculty of Law in Fribourg and holder of the Chair of Economic Law at the University of Fribourg, gave a Presentation of Swiss Law. In particular, she emphasised the state of Swiss Law, which could have gone further than the 2017 French law known as the "Vigilance" law if the popular initiative reference had led to the adoption of a law, and which currently focuses more on information and transparency obligations, with CSR taking over from there. But she stresses that the reality of value chains will force Swiss companies to take into account the requirements of the European directive currently being adopted.

🕴️Renaud Roussel, Managing Director of Colas Switzerland, presented an entrepreneurial view of the subject. He began by outlining the concrete steps taken by his industrial group in Switzerland and around the world to implement its commitments to protect the environment, for example by ensuring the proper use of materials used in road construction. He also stressed the importance of human rights, particularly in labour relations, in the context of CSR and vigilance. He went on to point out that it was not always easy for a large company to meet its own requirements, or the requirements imposed on it by the law, because in the construction and public works sector in particular it is often small companies that are competing, competitors who do not bear the costs of such obligations.

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Sept. 29, 2023

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Témoignage" ("Testimony"), in Institut d'Études Judiciaires (IEJ) d'AngersHommage à Pierre Crocq, Angers University, September 29, 2023.

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🧮see the full programme of this event (in French)

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Sept. 28, 2023

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Conclusion", in Club des avocats environnementalistes, L’eau : entre protection de la ressource et conflits d’usage, Maison des Avocats, Auditorium, September 28, 2023.

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🧮see the full programme of this event

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Aug. 31, 2023

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 Référence complète : M.-A. Frison-Roche, "Le prolongement du Droit de la Régulation par le Droit de la Compliance : fixer les buts et superviser les moyens", in XXIV Jornadas Internacionales de Derecho Administrativo (XXIVièmes Journées internationales de Droit administratif), Université Externado de Colombie, Bogota, 31 août 2023.

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🧮consulter le programme complet cette manifestation

Présentation de la conférence :  Dans le temps imparti, il n'est pas discuté de la façon dont les États se transforment pour devenir des "États Régulateurs" : cela est exposé dans d'autres contributions. Il est donc ici pris pour acquis que les Etats sont "Régulateurs" à la fois dans leur conception même (c'est-à-dire qu'ils accompagnent l'économie de marché pour l'infléchir en s'appuyant sur elle) et dans des techniques nouvelles, notamment la mise en place des Autorités de Régulation. C'est ainsi que naît une branche spéciale du Droit : le Droit de la Régulation. Celui-ci demeure encore ancré dans le Droit administratif à beaucoup d'égard (cela non plus n'est pas discuté ici).

En quelque sorte, la présente contribution porte sur l'étape suivante, qui consiste au développement de cette sorte d'étape qu'est l'Etat Régulateur, qu'exprime le Droit de la Régulation, dans le Droit de la Compliance. Il convient de conserver ce terme américain de "compliance", malgré toutes ses ambiguïtés, parce que l'instant on n'en a pas trouvé d'autres ...

La conférence est bâtie en dix points, succinctement développés dans le document de travail sous-jacent.

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🚧Lire le document de travail sous-jacent à la conférence.

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June 21, 2023

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 Full Reference: M.-A. Frison-Roche, "Favoriser ou pas la « contractualisation » du Droit" ("To favour or not the "contractualisation" of the Law"), final speech in Société de législation comparée (SLC) and Procuradoria Geral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (PGE-RJ)La contractualisation du droit. Acte II, Paris, 21 June 2023.

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🧮See the full programme of this event (in French).

The conference is held in French

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June 19, 2023

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► Full Reference: M.-A. Frison-Roche, participation in the panel "Vigilance (due diligence)", in International Law Association (ILA)150th Anniversary Symposium of the ILA/ADI, Paris, 19 June 2023.

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🧮See the full programme of this event

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June 16, 2023

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► Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "L'usage des puissances privées par le droit de la compliance pour servir les droits de l’homme" ("The use of private forces by Compliance Law to serve human rights"), in Joel Andriantsimbazovina (dir.), Puissances privées et droits de l'homme, University of Toulouse, 16 June 2023.

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🧮Read the full programme of this event

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June 14, 2023

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► Full Reference: M.-A. Frison-Roche, "Compliance et droit processuel" ("Compliance and Procedural Law"), in B. Deffains, M.-A. Frison-Roche and J.-B. Racine (dir.), Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and University Panthéon-Assas (Paris II), Compliance : Obligation, devoir, pouvoir, culture (Compliance : obligation, duty, power, culture)University Panthéon-Assas, Salle des Conseils, 14 June 2023.

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🧮See the full programme of this event

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🎤see the other speech made during the first day of this symposium : "L'obligation de compliance, entre volonté et consentement : obligation sur obligation vaut" ("Compliance Obligation, between will and consent: obligation on obligation works")  

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► Summary of the conference: After referring to the chapter in the book Compliance Jurisdictionalisation, which deals more specifically with Procedural Law!footnote-2987, the conference is built around 5 developments, each of which represents a progression.

The first development relates to the fact that the relationship between Compliance Law and Procedural Law is very difficult because it is often said that they simply have nothing to do with each other, or that they have everything to dislike each other. This is because Compliance is often reduced to processes, and to the mechanical place that algorithms could take in it, in taking care of everything.

Compliance would even have the purpose and effect of ensuring that the company and its managers never come into contact with a judge, the public prosecutor being their best ally in this respect.

Secondly, I recalled the very common idea that Procedural Law is a kind of 'tribute' that the rule of Law demands, which certainly weighs down companies when compared with companies living in systems in which there's not not such a price.

But many stress that Procedural Law could become a model. This can be justified and technically anticipated because it has already happened in Regulation Law, and Compliance Law is the deployment of it!footnote-2988.

In the third stage, I worked on the alliance between the two, with the procedure (rather than the process) modifying compliance and thereby reinforcing it, evoking the way in which this can manifest itself technically!footnote-2989.

In the fourth step, I looked for what would be the "naturally appropriate procedure" for Compliance: one that takes into account the duration and the development of "solutions", to which the notion of "sustainability", which is central in the substantive Law of Compliance, refers.

In a fifth stage, and devoting more time to this, I have pointed out where innovation should be the strongest: the proof, the probatory obligation being the "part totale" ("total part") of the compliance obligation. This major issue will be the subject of a series of symposiums held in 2024.

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June 14, 2023

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► Full Reference: M.-A. Frison-Roche, "L'esprit des Lois en matière de vigilance" ("Spirit of Law in Vigilance (Due Diligences) matters"), in Haut Conseil du Commissariat aux Comptes (H3C), Réalités et défis de la CSRD - Perspectives du devoir de vigilance, Paris, 14 June 2023.

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🎥watch the video of a part of the speech (in French)

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🧱read the description of the speeches of other speakers of this panel (in French)

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The speech took place during the third-round table devoted to the Perspectives du devoir de vigilance (Perspectives of the duty of vigilance), the first round table having been devoted to the lessons that the DPEF can provide for the CSRD, and the second to the transposition work of the CSRD.

🧮See the full programme of this annual event (in French)

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► English summary of the speech: In consideration of and in addition to what has been said, explained and even affirmed by other speakers, I have emphasised that 'vigilance" laws is not a 'regulation' like any other, but the leading edge of a very vast movement, Compliance Law, in which the 2017 French law is the driving force. For its application, the Judge, who is at the centre because of the will of the Legislator, is already taking into consideration the CS3D, the twin text of the CSRD.

The texts must not be seen in isolation. If we isolate them from each other, they become almost incomprehensible, their meaning appearing uncertain, even threatening: we need to understand the spirit of these texts, which are indeed new, because they aim to provide answers to the new world we have entered. We must all rejoice in this political ambition, which is taking a legal form, and work to make it efficient: Legislators, companies, auditors, Regulators and Judges.

If we do not stop at the letter, which would be to reduce Compliance to conformity, whereas Compliance Law, particularly Vigilance, is the extension of Regulation, finds its meaning in the Goals, we see that the French law of 2017, known as the "Vigilance law", which copies all the techniques of the French law known as "Sapin 2", gives goals simple to understand to the companies subject to the Legislator's will: detect and prevent environmental and human rights abuses in the value chains.

The logic is therefore Ex-Ante.

This Ex-Ante logic is retained by the CS3D directive.

The Judge is central to it. But the responsibility which the NGOs will ask him to trigger is itself an "Ex Ante responsibility", the Compliance trials being like "accountability" trials, to ensure that companies act in accordance with the Goals set by the Legislator.

This is transforming the role of the Judge, who must find effective solutions for the future. The discussion and the adversarial principle will become more important. Mediation will be encouraged. Stakeholders and the company will have to work together, and this method, which was intended by the Legislator for drawing up the vigilance plan, will be continued in the supporting legal proceedings.

This will also transform the company, and the role played by those who accredit the information on the company's actions and long-term strategies: auditors therefore have a central role to play.

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June 13, 2023

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► Référence complète : M.-A. Frison-Roche, "L’obligation de compliance, entre volonté et consentement : obligation sur obligation vaut", in B. Deffains, M.-A. Frison-Roche et J.-B. Racine (dir.), Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) et Université Paris Panthéon-Assas, Compliance : Obligation, devoir, pouvoir, cultureUniversité Panthéon-Assas, Salle des Conseils, 13 juin 2023.

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🎤consulter la présentation de l'autre conférence faite lors de la seconde journée de ce colloque : "Compliance et Droit processuel"

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🧮Consulter le programme de cette manifestation

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► Présentation de la conférence : Le Droit des contrats noue le "consentement" et la "volonté", puisque le consentement est ce qui manifeste la volonté d'une personne, en marque la liberté et l'engagement, en constitue la trace et la preuve. En 1995, j'ai montré que le Droit économique avait distingué le consentement et la volonté, pour rendre les consentements autonomes et en faire des marchés, notamment dans le Droit de la concurrence et le Droit financier📎!footnote-2980. Or, le consentement si on le transporte en objet, autonome, devient le signe d'une obéissance mécanique, ce qui produit des effets dont le système juridique, si l'on est dans un système libéral et démocratique, doit tenir compte d'une façon centrale. Le Droit économique lui-même doit mettre cela au centre, ce qu'il ne fait guère, notamment par la distinction, néfaste, des branches du Droit.

Puis en rendant hommage à Pierre Godé qui avait fait sa thèse sur la volonté📎!footnote-2982, j'ai montré en 2018 que les "consentements mécaniques" étaient la base de beaucoup d'industries dans l'espace numérique📎!footnote-2981.  Les Autorités publiques de supervision et de régulation mis en place en matière de Compliance, par exemple en France la CNIL, ont eu pour mission et pour jurisprudence de sauvegarder ce lien entre le consentement et la volonté.

Mais la difficulté à comprendre le système général du Droit de la Compliance vient de la confusion souvent faite entre celui-ci et ce qui n'est qu'un de ses outils : la conformité. Or, la conformité est l'obligation pour un sujet de droit, certaines entreprises de donner à voir en Ex Ante qu'elles obéissent activement à la réglementation qui leur est applicable. J'ai montré en 2016📎!footnote-2983 que le Droit de la Compliance ne doit pas se définir par l'obéissance mécanique mais comme la compréhension de la Volonté du Législateur qui vise des Buts, l'entreprise contribuant à la concrétisation de ceux-ci.

Les entreprise qui sont sujets du Droit de la Compliance ne sont alors pas toutes les entreprises, ni celles qui seraient "coupables" par avance, mais celles qui "sont en position" d'atteindre les buts : les "entreprises cruciales", notion que j'ai proposée en 2006📎!footnote-2984. C'est donc dans une perspective systémique et en Ex Ante que le Droit de la Compliance se développe, le Droit de la Compliance étant le déploiement du Droit de la Régulation, comme je l'ai montré en 2017📎!footnote-2985.

Il demeure que les entreprises, qui entrent dans le commerce juridique par leur personnalité juridique, peuvent elles-aussi exprimer leur volonté et non pas seulement consentir. Elles le font non seulement dans la mise en œuvre, ce que la Volonté du Législateur leur demande, mais encore en édictant des Buts, là où se loge la normativité du Droit de la Compliance. 

C'est là où l'on doit affirmer dans un nouvel adage : Obligation sur Obligation vaut.

En effet, si l'entreprise exerce sa puissance juridique non seulement sa capacité à obéir (consentement), ce qui est une puissance faible, mais encore en exerçant leur puissance pour l'effectivité, l'efficacité et l'efficience des Buts Monumentaux du Droit de la Compliance, les systèmes et les êtres humains qui y sont impliquées en sont les bénéficiaires.

C'est pourquoi dans une conception générale du "pouvoir" que j'ai dessinée pour rendre hommage à Emmanuel Gaillard qui avait consacré sa thèse à cette notion📎!footnote-2986, l'entreprise déploie sa volonté libre et autonome, le consentement, y compris celui des tiers qui dépendent d'elles, convergeant vers la concrétisation des buts. Le contrat devient l'outil premier. 

Le sujet premier devient alors en théorie et en pratique l'articulation entre la Volonté du Législateur (la "réglementation" applicable) et la Volonté des entreprises cruciales. Ce point sera particulièrement développé lors de la conférence. 

La dimension probatoire de la question sera plutôt développée le lendemain dans la conférence qui, dans le cadre de ce cycle portant sur L'Obligation de Compliance, portera sur Compliance et Droit processuel.

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La conférence est construite en trois temps :

I.EXCLURE L'AUTONOMIE DE LA CONFORMITÉ, AMPLIFICATION DE LA MACHINE À CONSENTIR 
 
 
II.PAR LA COMPLIANCE, EXPRESSION DE LA VOLONTÉ GÉNÉRALE GLOBALE, OBLIGER LES MAÎTRES POUR QUE LE FUTUR NE LEUR APPARTIENNE PAS
 

III. OBLIGATION SUR OBLIGATION VAUT

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1

M.-A. Frison-Roche, Remarques sur la distinction....

2

Mettre le titre et la fiche qui donne les références de la thèse

3

M.-A.  Frison-Roche, Oui au principe de la volonté, Non aux consentements purs, 2018.

4

M.-A.  Frison-Roche, Le Droit de la Compliance, 2016.

5

M.-A. Frison-Roche, Proposition pour une notion : "l'entreprise cruciale", 2006.

6

M.-A. Frison-Roche (dir.), Régulation, Supervision, Compliance, 2017.

7

M.-A. Frison-Roche, Concevoir le pouvoir, 2021. 

June 2, 2023

Conferences

🌐follow Marie-Anne Frison-Roche on LinkedIn

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 Full Reference: M.-A. Frison-Roche, Le rôle du Juge dans le déploiement du Droit de la Régulation en Droit de la Compliance (The role of the Judge in the deployment of Regulatory Law in Compliance Law), in Conseil d'État (French Administrative Supreme Court) and Cour de cassation (French Judiciaire Supreme Court of cassation), De la Régulation à la Compliance : quel rôle pour le Juge ? ("From Regulatory to Compliance : what role for the judge?"), speech constituting the "closing session" of the bi-annual joint symposium of the two High Courts, held at the Conseil d'Etat, Salle d'Assemblée générale, 2 June 2023.

The event was held in French.

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🧮See the full programme of this event (in French)

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🎥watch the interview given about the conclusion, done after the speech (in French)

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🧮read the general programme of the manifestation (in French)

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📚read the bibliographical dossier du participant. (participant's file made in French)

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🎥watch the general introductory speechs of Didier-Roland Tabuteau, Vice-Président du Conseil d'Etat, de Christophe Soulard, Premier Président de la Cour de cassation, and of François Molins, Procureur général près la Cour de cassation ;  and the interventions in the first session devoted to the path from the Regulatory to the Compliance with Marie-Anne Barbat-Layani, présidente de l'AMF, Jean-Yves Ollier, conseiller d'Etat, Daniel Calleja-Crespo, directeur général du service juridique de la Commission européenne andChristine Guegen, , première avocate générale de la chambre commerciale de la Cour de cassation

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🎥watch the speechs in the second session devoted to the office of the judge with  Vincent Vigneau, président de la chambre commerciale de la Cour de cassation, François Ancel, conseiller à la première chambre civile de la Cour de cassatin, Astrid Mignon-Colombet, avocate à la Cour, Lucien Rapp, professeur à Toulouse-Capitol and Alain Seban, conseiller d'Etat ; the speechs of the third session dedicated to the Compliance new frontiers, with Christophe Chantepy, président de la section du contentieux du Conseil d'Etat, Roch-Olivier Maistre, président de l'Arcom, Paul Nihoul, juge au Tribunal de l'Union européenne, Jean-François Bohnert, procureur de la République financier, Joëlle Tolédano, professeure émérite à Dauphine ; the final session with Marie-Anne Frison-Roche

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🎥watch this final speech by Marie-Anne Frison-Roche, which formed the closing session of the event

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🚧read the bilingual Working Paper used as basis for the article to be published later

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💬read the interview given by Marie-Anne Frison-Roche and Alain Seban after the colloquia and entitled "Compliance : les cours suprêmes s’emparent de la question de ses enjeux juridictionnels" ("Compliance : the Supreme Courts take up the issue of its jurisdictional implications")

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► English presentation of this general conclusion: Having a definition of Compliance Law in mind, a definition around which there still seems to be so much dispute, is not required to understand that this Law is what will enable us to enter and deal with a new world and if this subject is so fascinating to young people who want to become lawyers, prosecutors, regulators or judges, even though they are not taught this subject, it is because they have understood that with Compliance Law they will be able to actively participate in this new world and build it. This is the way we want it to take it, with force and courage in a sort of collective adventure. In this way, the Judges have a monumental role to play, which is at the very heart of Compliance Law.

They will necessarily be so because demands and claims will converge on them from all sides, from Internet users, consumers, investors, associations and companies, and the Judge will have to respond. This has already started and is only just beginning. Judges must be prepared.

Four expectations are emerging as to what their role should be.

Firstly, judges must persist in their role as guardians of the Rule of Law, in a Compliance Law impregnated with technologies (algorithms) that could be described as insensitive.

Secondly, beyond this vital role as guardian of the Rule of Law, the Judge has a new role in the extraordinary deployment of Compliance Law, which is measured in terms of the novelty of the normative control it exercises, the commitments it supports, the remedies it finds and the sustainability it reinforces.

Thirdly, in the natural space of justice, the judge responds to parties who make claims of compliance, both as plaintiff and defendant, because the causes of compliance are systemic causes that deserve a new jurisdictional treatment.

Fourthly, given the novelty and scope of this innovative approach, all judges must converge in terms of content, qualifications, and methods if they are both to continue their traditional role as guardians of the Rule of Law and to be able to endure their new role, a dialogue in which they have so much to contribute to each other.

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May 25, 2023

Conferences

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► Full Reference: M.-A. Frison-Roche, "Conclusions", in Ch. Maubernard et A. Brès (dir.), Institut de droit européen des droits de l'homme et Centre de droit de l'entreprise, Université de Montpellier, Le devoir de vigilance des entreprises : l'âge de la maturité?("The Entreprises duty of vigilance: the maturity age?") , Montpellier, May 25, 2023.

The conference is held in French.

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🧮see the manifestation programme (in French)

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🌐 read the report done on LinkedIn (in French)

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► English summary of this final speech of the manifestation: It is rather difficult to draw a conclusion after listening so many contributions. For three reasons: firstly, because of their richness and extreme diversity; secondly, because of the fact that we do not know whether the duty of vigilance is under the French law of 2017 (known as the Vigilance Law) or in other national, European and international texts or beyond or below the legal rules; thirdly, because we do not know what is meant by the "maturity" of a legal concept. But in the end, since the question posed by the title itself of the colloquium is Duty of Vigilance: the age of maturity? the answer is clearly: no.

But this is regrettable. It is therefore essential to explore the ways in which the duty of vigilance can mature.  If we find merit in this duty which has now entered the legal system, there are eight intersecting avenues, which must be exploited.

The first path is progression through the passage of time, rediscovering what in the past was already vigilance and what in the future will be its deployment.

The second way is to progress by fixing the vocabulary, because we are witnessing a great battle of words, overtly or covertly, in French or English.

The third path is progression through the emergence of principles, or even a principle, rediscovered or invented.

The fourth path is progression through coherence brought to the legal system(s), which at present suffer from gaps and inconsistencies, which could be remedied by methods such as centralising litigation or, more radically, ignoring borders.

The fifth path is progression through the fact that it works, because vigilance techniques are those of Compliance, of which vigilance is the leading edge, and the challenge is to find solutions.

The sixth path is progression through using power of the legal system not only to create new areas of relevance - starting with the notion of vigilance, but also that of the value chain - but also to impose new indifferences, namely indifference to the figure of the market (to which laws prefer the company and the value chain) and indifference to borders.

The seventh path is progression through bringing perspectives closer together, in order to find solutions even when interests are opposed. This is where the two techniques of contract and mediation are very welcome.

The eighth path is progression through culture, because the culture of vigilance, like the culture of compliance, must be developed within companies and supply chains, and must become common to them and their stakeholders.

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🚧read the Working Paper written just after this oral conclusion in preparation for the article to be published.

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