Thesaurus : Soft Law

► Référence complète : Agence française anticorruption (AFA), Guide du contrôle comptable anticorruption, 2022. 



► Lire le guide


📧 Lire le commentaire fait par Marie-Anne Frison-Roche de ce guide. 


Feb. 1, 2024


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 Full Reference: F. Ancel and  M.-A. Frison-RocheDroit de la compliance (Compliance Law), École nationale de la magistrature - ENM (French National School for the Judiciary), 1 and 2 February 2024, Paris. 

This teaching is given in French.


 Presentation of the Teaching: The two-day session is designed for magistrates and practicing lawyers who are not necessarily specialized, to enable them, based on concrete cases, to understand the issues, objectives, and methods of compliance mechanisms in companies, including the increasing judicialization and the supranational dimension strengthen, modifying the office of the judge and the role of lawyers.

The analysis is made from the angle of Civil Law (contract, tort), Company Law, Labor Law and Criminal Law, but also governance, financial markets, regulatory, climate and digital issues.


 Organisation of the Teaching: this teaching is open to all judicial members and lawyers. Enrollments are made at the French National School for the Judiciary.


read below the programme put together and organised by François Ancel and Marie-Anne Frison-Roche⤵️

Sept. 21, 2023

Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Référence complète : G. Poissonnier, "CJIP avec Technip: peut-on garder les mains propres dans le pétrole ?", JCP E, n° 38, septembre 2023, étude 1267, pp. 52-53


 Résumé de l'article (fait par l'auteur) : "Solution. - Une convention judiciaire d’intérêt public (CJIP) conclue par le parquet national financier et la société Technip prévoit le paiement au Trésor public d’une amende de près de 209 millions d’euros pour des faits de corruption d’agents publics étrangers.
Impact. - L’amende prononcée est substantielle mais la CJIP conclue récompense la bonne foi de l’entreprise qui a dénoncé des faits de corruption et a pleinement coopéré avec les autorités judiciaires. La question de la nature de la suite pénale qui sera donnée en cas de réitération de l’infraction est posée."


🦉Cet article est accessible en texte intégral pour les personnes inscrites aux enseignements de la Professeure Marie-Anne Frison-Roche


Sept. 7, 2023


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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche & Arnoldo Wald, "Le cas Petrobras, une juste adéquation de la responsabilité pour protéger les personnes impliquées dans des systèmes globaux" ("The Petrobras case: the right balance of responsibility to protect those involved in global systems"), RIDC, July-September 2023, No. 3, pp. 563-582.


► Summary of the article: This article briefly outlines the main aspects of corporate liability in the capital market under Brazilian law, arising from the company’s duty to inform shareholders and investors, followed by a commentary on the recent partial award in an arbitration brought by minority shareholders against Petrobras, which underlines the legitimacy of the minority shareholders to engage the company’s liability.



Sept. 6, 2023

Thesaurus : Soft Law

► Référence complète : G. Dell, Tackling grand corruption impunity. Proposal for a definition and special measures, Working Paper, Transparency International, septembre 2023


📙lire le Working Paper



May 11, 2023

Thesaurus : Soft Law

 Full Reference : Agence française anticorruption - AFA (French Anticoruption Agency), Presentation of various regulatory frameworks for promoting business integrity across the world, Study, May 2023.


📜read the study


March 14, 2023

Thesaurus : Soft Law

► Full Reference: Agence française anticorruption - AFA (French Anti-Corruption Agency) and Parquet national financier - PNF (French National Financial Prosecutor's Office), Internal anti-corruption investigations. Practical Guide, march 2023. 


📜read the guide



Feb. 2, 2023

Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Full Reference: A. Bruneau, "L'entreprise juge d'elle-même : la fonction compliance dans la banque" ("The company judge of itself: the compliance function inside the bank"), in M.-A. Frison-Roche (ed.), La juridictionnalisation de la Compliancecoll. "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, 2023, p. 115-131. 


📕read a general presentation of the book, La juridictionnalisation de la Compliance, in which this article is published




 Summary of the article (done by the author): First of all, it should be remembered that the compliance function was born within finance, and that by being structured, it has evolved to support the transition from regulatory law to compliance law. Through these changes, compliance has gone from an ex-post controlling function to an ex-ante binding function. The LIBOR crisis imperfectly illustrates the primacy of this transition. The evolution of this role is illustrated by concrete examples

Firstly, the management of reputational risk is a fundamental part of the company as prosecutor and judge of itself. Reputational risk is a significant element for a financial institution, because it can have negative consequences on its capitalization, or even culminate in a systemic crisis. Avoiding a large-scale financial crisis is also part of the monumental goals of compliance.

In order to avoid complex and inopportune scenarios, compliance law intervenes as early as possible and identifies issues that may impact reputation. The regulations require the implementation of certain ex ante mechanisms. The French law known as "Sapin 2" requires the implementation of tools that concern all companies (and not just banks). Indeed, beyond the risk of reputation, it is essential to consider the risk of corruption. Consideration of reputational risk may justify refusing to execute certain transactions. From this perspective, compliance must assess the potential consequences of entering into a relationship with a new client upstream, sometimes to decline the provision of services. The compliance function therefore unilaterally judges the relationship with a view to managing the company reputational risk.

Secondly, the internal sanction mechanism established by compliance law is also discussed in this article, in particular the internal sanctions adopted by compliance in a financial institution.

Compliance can act as a prosecutor via management committees set up within the business lines. In addition, compliance can determine and apply sanctions against employees. In this way, there is a dual role of prosecutor and judge for the compliance function within the framework of an extraordinary mechanism of ordinary law.

Finally, the analysis deals with the case of the "judge-judged": following a decision by the bank, the regulator may take an even stricter position by believing that the bank is applying its guidelines incorrectly. Thus, the compliance law, which takes hold within the banking enterprise, finds itself under the judgment of its own regulator. The company finds itself judged and comes to be a prosecutor and judge of itself, but also of its clients.


Updated: Feb. 2, 2023 (Initial publication: March 31, 2021)

Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Full Reference: J.-B. Racine, "Compliance et Arbitrage. Essai de problématisation" ("Compliance and Arbitration : Problematisation", in M.-A. Frison-Roche (ed.), La juridictionnalisation de la Compliancecoll. "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, 2023, p. 265-279. 


📕read a general presentation of the book, La juridictionnalisation de la Compliance, in which this article is published


 The summary below describes an article that follows an intervention in the scientific manifestation Compliance et Arbitrage, co-organised by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and the University Panthéon-Assas (Paris II). This conference was designed by Marie-Anne Frison-Roche and Jean-Baptiste Racine, scientific co-directors, and took place in Paris II University on March 31, 2021. 

In the book, the article will be published in Title II, devoted to: Compliance et Arbitrage.


 Summary of the article (done by the author): Under the consideration of the "Compliance Juridictionalisation", it is necessary to study in the links between Compliance and Arbitration. The arbitrator is a judge, he is even the natural judge of international trade. Arbitration is therefore naturally intended to meet compliance which transforms the action of companies in an international context. However, the links between compliance and arbitration are not obvious. It is not a question of providing firm and definitive answers, but rather, and above all, of asking questions. We are at the start of reflection on this topic, which explains why there is, for the time being, little legal literature on the subject of the relationship between Compliance and Arbitration. It doesn't mean there aren't connections.  Quite simply, these relations may not have come to light, or they are in the making. We should research  the existing or potential bridges between two worlds that have long gravitated separately: Compliance on the one hand, Arbitration on the other. The central question is: is or can the arbitrator be a compliance judge, and, if so, how?

In any event, the Arbitrator is thus in contact with matters requiring the methods, tools and logic of Compliance. In addition to the prevention and suppression of corruption, three examples can be given.

  • Arbitration has been facing economic sanctions (notably embargoes) for several years. The link with Compliance is obvious, insofar as texts providing for economic sanctions are often accompanied by compliance mechanisms, as in the United States. The arbitrator is concerned as to the fate he reserves in the treatment of the dispute with the measures of economic sanctions.
  • Competition Law is a branch that came into contact with Arbitration from the end of the 1980s. The arbitrability of this type of dispute is now established and arbitrators apply it regularly. At the same time, Compliance has also entered Competition Law, admittedly more strongly in the United States than in France. The existence, absence or insufficiency of a compliance program aimed at preventing violations of the competition rules are thus circumstances which may assist the arbitrator in the assessment of anti-competitive behavior.
  • Environmental Law is also concerned. There is environmental Compliance, for example with regard to the French law of March 27, 2017 on the duty of vigilance. Companies are thus responsible for participating in the protection of the environment, by internalizing these concerns in their internal and external operations (in their sphere of influence). As soon as an arbitrator is in charge for settling a dispute relating to Environmental Law, the question of the relationship to Compliance, from this angle, naturally arises.

It is therefore the multiple interactions between Compliance and Arbitration, actual or potential, which are thus open.


Oct. 12, 2022


Référence complète : Jaune, R., Règles pénales et administratives de la lutte anticorruption : l'influence des normes étrangères et internationales, Revue française d'administration publique, 2020/3, n°175, p.645-659.


July 7, 2022

Adventures of the Ogre Compliance


May 16, 2022

Thesaurus : Soft Law

Référence complète : Agence française anticorruption (AFA), Rapport d'activité 2021, mai 2022, 68 p.


Lire le rapport

July 7, 2021

Thesaurus : 11. French Anticorruption Agency

Full reference: AFA, Commission des sanctions (sanctions commission), Société I. SA, Decision n°19-2, July 7, 2021

Read the decision (in French)

June 21, 2021

Compliance: at the moment

► It is in its "Risk and Compliance" section that the Wall Street Journal, by its article of June 18, 2021 (➡️📝Europe's Chief Prosecutor Has 300 Cases on Her Plate Already), presents the first steps of the European Public Prosecutor’s Office, since June 1, 2021.

This inclusion presupposes that it is through a Compliance Law perspective that this new body must be understood, in order to understand and anticipate its action.

In this perspective :

➡️📧Frison-Roche, M.-A., European Public Prosecutor's Office comes on stage: the company having itself become a private prosecutor, are we going towards an alliance of all prosecutors?, June 2, 2021

➡️ 💬Frison-Roche, « Le parquet européen est un apport considérable au Droit de la Compliance » (“The European Public Prosecutor's Office is a remarkable contribution to Compliance Law"), June 14, 2021



The article of the Wall Street Journal takes the form of an interview with the European Prosecutor. Her responses also confirm the consubstantial link between European Public Prosecutor's Office and Compliance Law.

It is remarkable that she immediately says that she hopes the treatment of many cases, especially on healthcare and infrastructure sectors: "Our expectation is to have more cases, especially in the healthcare system, in public procurement, infrastructure, and also in agriculture ".

However, the 2017 European Regulation which established the European Public Prosecutor’s Office said that its "mandate" is to prosecute offenses affecting the "financial interests of the European Union", without being hampered by the cumbersome procedures for cooperation between States while these offenses are most often cross-border.

But one could think that, knowingly taking the means (corruption, money laundering) for the goal, the European Public Prosecutor's Office would immediately pursue not only the defense of the financial interests of the Union (admittedly financial interests damaged by corruption or money laundering) but these facts themselves: thus the European Public Prosecutor's Office works with the European Supervisory Authorities, in particular banking and financial authorities, which fight in Ex Ante against these offenses and prevent them.



Moreover, it will be noted that the European Prosecutor is targeting three economic sectors which are not "regulated sectors" in the legal sense of the qualification, that is to say not monitored by a sectoral Regulatory and/or Supervision Authority: Health, Infrastructure and Agriculture.

Thus, the power of Regulatory Law, which relies in its Ex Ante, and its weakness, which derives from the pre-required existence of a sectoral Authority, is compensated: the action of the Public Prosecutor's Office is not limited to legally regulated sectors.

While Competition Authorities are mandated (➡️📅La concurrence dans tous ses états, June 25 and 26, 2021) to protect the competitive functioning of the markets, a Public Prosecutor's Office can deal with any infringement without having to determine a market.

For instance, Infrastructures don't constitute pertinent markets but can constitute fields for criminal activities, such as corruption or money laundering, justifying Compliance Law mechanisms. 

What the new European Prosecutor is aiming for, namely Health, Infrastructures and Agriculture, have undoubtedly been damaged both by the sole primacy of the Competition perspective and by a Criminal Law constrained by the difficult inter-State cooperation, even though they are not subject to a supranational Ex Ante Regulation.

The European Public Prosecutor's Office aims to directly improve this, through Entreprises acting in Health, Infrastructures and Agriculture. 



► subscribe to the French Newsletter MaFR ComplianceTech®

June 1, 2021

Compliance: at the moment

May 5, 2021

Thesaurus : 08. Juridictions du fond

Référence complète : Paris, 5 mai 2021, Carrefour



La société Carrefour Hypermarchés commande et achète des produits référencés par sa centrale de référencement, Carrefour Marchandises Internationales (CMI), notamment ceux de la la société I2C. Or, le responsable du référencement des produits de cette société s'était vu offrir des voyages par ce fournisseur (certes avant l'établissement de la Charte éthique).

Un audit avait révélé cela après l'adoption de la charte. Par conséquent, la société CMI a mis fin à sa relation commerciale avec ce fournisseur.

Contestée sur l'allégation du caractère brutal de la rupture des relations commerciale, la Cour estime que cela est justifié car la violation de la charte éthique pouvait fonder la rupture immédiate des relations commerciales, indépendamment de leur date en raison de leur gravité. 


- Voir dans le même rattachement à l'obligation de vigilance sur les manquements du fournisseur, justifiant la cessation immédiate de toutes relations commerciales : 

  • Paris, 13 mars 2019, Monoprix , n°17/21477 ; 
  • Paris, 24 mars 201, Promod, n°19/15565




March 31, 2021

Compliance: at the moment

March 28, 2021

Compliance: at the moment

March 16, 2021

Publications : Doctrine

Référence complète : Catelan N., Saenko L., De quoi la CJIP est-elle le nom ?  in Gaz. Pal. 16 mars 2021, n°399b4, p.69. 

Feb. 24, 2021

Thesaurus : Jurisprudence

Full reference: Autorité de Contrôle Prudentiel et de Résolution (French Banking Regulator), Commission des sanctions (Commission of sanctions), 24th of February 2021, ING Bank France, procedure n°2020-02


Read the decision (in French)


In this decision, the ACPR Sanctions Commission condemns IGN Bank France to a reprimand and a financial penalty of 3 million euros because of the inadequacy of its measures to fight corruption, money laundering and financing of terrorism.


Extract from the decision summarizing ING France's breaches of its Compliance obligations to fight against corruption, money laundering and financing of terrorism:

"At the time of the on-site check, ING France's risk classification was incomplete and ineffective (grievance 1) and its system for monitoring its business relations (complaint 2) and their operations (grievance 4) presented serious deficiencies, as well as its organization and procedures for fund transfers (grievance 3). The updating of customer knowledge was insufficient (grievance 5), as were the detection of PEPs and the implementation of measures due diligence for this category of clientele (grievance 6). For the implementation of its due diligence obligations, numerous shortcomings were noted, whether these were breaches of the obligation to carry out a reinforced examination (grievance 7) or breaches of the obligation to send Tracfin a DS, initial (grievance 8) or additional (grievance 9). Finally, the detection of persons subject to an asset freezing measure was not fully effective (grievance 10) " (our translation of the decision which is only available in French).

Jan. 12, 2021

Thesaurus : Soft Law

► Full ReferenceAgence française anticorruption - AFA (French Anti-corruption Agency), The French Anti-Corruption Agency Guidelines. Notice on the French Anti-corruption Agency Guidelines to help public and private sector entities to prevent and detect bribery, influence peddling, extorsion by public officials, illegal taking of interest, misappropriation of public funds and favoritism, January 12, 2021


📜Read the guidelines


Dec. 16, 2020

Thesaurus : Soft Law

Référence complète: Gauvain, R. et Marleix, O., Evaluation de la loi n° 2016-1691 du 9 décembre 2016 relative à la transparence, à la lutte contre la corruption et à la modernisation de la vie économique, dite « loi Sapin 2 », Commission des Lois, Assemblée nationale, 16 décembre 2020


Liste des personnalités auditionnées par la mission d'évaluation

Le 20 janvier:

Le 27 janvier: 

Le 28 janvier: 

Le 10 février:

Oct. 22, 2020

Thesaurus : Soft Law

Full reference: Coeurquetin, R., Comparaison mécanique des versions 2017 et 2020 des recommendations de l'Agence Française Anti-corruption sur la cartographie des risques de corruption, October 2020, 9 p. 

Read the mechanical comparison (in French)

To go further on the question of risk mapping, read Marie-Anne Frison-Roche's working papers: Drawing up Risk Maps a an Obligation and the Paradoxe of "Compliance Risks" and Anchor Points of the Risk Mapping in the Legal System

Sept. 22, 2020

Newsletter MAFR - Law, Compliance, Regulation

Full reference: Frison-Roche, M.-A., Interregulation: way of "cooperation protocol"​ between Regulatory Bodies. Example between French Financial Markets Authority and Anticorruption AgencyNewsletter MAFR - Law, Compliance, Regulation, 22nd of September 2020

Read by freely subscribing other news of the Newsletter MAFR - Law, Compliance, Regulation


Summary of the news: 

Although Regulation Law was born from the notion "sector", constant interferences between sectors and frequent interactions between some sectors and more general questions common to different sectors, make interregulation necessary. Compliance Law being the extension of Regulation Law, this interregulation mechanism is also necessary in Compliance Law. 

This interregulation can take many legal paths like letters exchanges between regulators, the creation of a network of regulators and supervisors at the world level or about some specific question or the adoption of a "cooperation protocol" as the AMF (French Financial Market Regulator) and the AFA (French Anticorruption Agency) did on 16th of September 2020 to reinforce their respective fight against corruption, against market abuses and for the protection of investors. 

This cooperation protocol between the AFA and the AMF has the following subjects:

  • A more efficient methodology concerning the research and the analysis of corruption and market abuses.
  • A more efficient prevention of corruption and market abuses.
  • A better capacity to give recommendations of new regulations to the Legislator.
  • A more rigorous monitoring of international works on the topic. 
  • A more coherent information for the public.

Are regulators the new teachers? 

Sept. 11, 2020

Thesaurus : Soft Law

Full reference: Agence Française Anticorruption (French anticorruption agency), Département de l'appui aux acteurs économiques (Support to economic actors department), La politique cadeaux et invitations dans les entreprises, les EPIC, les associations et les fondations (Gifts and invitations policy for firms, public firms, associations and fondations), Guide pratique 2020 (Practical Guide 2020), 11th of September 2020, 14 p.

Read the practical guide in French