Updated: July 25, 2020 (Initial publication: July 1, 2020)
This working document served as the basis for an article, contribution in the collective book Compliance Tools, 2020
Summary of this working paper:
Training is a specific Compliance tool and a dimension that each Compliance tool expresses.
Firstly, as a training it is a specific Compliance Tool, it is supervised by Regulators. It even becomes compulsory when it is contained in Compliance programs. Since the effectivity and the efficiency are legal requirements, what is therefore the margin of companies to design it and how can we measure its result?
Secondly, as each Compliance Tool contains, more and more, an educational dimension, we can take back each of them to detect this perspective. Thus, even sanctions and prescriptions, are lessons: lessons given, lessons to follow. The question is then to know who, in this so pedagogic Compliance Law, are the "instructors"?
Training is akin to these things - and very precious - that we do, or even dream of doing, but so poorly expressed from the moment we take them as an object of technical writing. Just do it.
It would be however unfortunate to publish a book on Compliance Tools without giving a particular place to training, the piece would miss in the puzzle.
So much money spent by companies, by fair or foul means, especially when Compliance programs imposed as sanctions contain heavy training obligations leading people to retain word for word everything that is forbidden to them, in order to always abstain from now on. Training is thus the sharp point of such Hard Law appearing under the steel of Criminal Law's sword in amphitheaters and e-learnings.
But also so much speeches about the necessity of a "Compliance culture" which should be instilled to firms, Compliance spousing with joy in an harmony with their "raison d'être" and the historical identity of this group of people which is the company itself through trainings which tell Compliance as a link, an outstretched hand toward those with whom managers want to renew a moral contract in an ethic for which they give the good example. It is not Prohibition anymore but Communication and Community that set the tone of a human dialogue with employees, stakeholders, administration and judges.
It is possible to assume that the former does not exclude the latter, that Training should target all of this, the learning of mandatory prescriptions to follow without discussion but also the adhesion to guidelines, and this because everyone has understood that they are funded.
Everything and its contrary, then. "Learning by heart" takes here its full sense: get everyone to remember mechanically in order for no one to misstep (with always more machines which massively teach us the regulatory corpus on our mobile screens) but also succeed in bringing our "heart" in Compliance, thanks to specific training methods (with always smaller groups, with always less public discussions in pleasant places). Everything and its contrary, then.
It would be imperative but also sufficient to cumulate. Doing everything. Those who propose training softwares as those who organize conferences, meetings and travels and are favorable to this addition of face-to-face and distancing methods, of mechanic and of human relations. Concretely, at the end companies observe that since the first does not replace the second, costs add up. But, in Compliance, costs constitute a grave default of it, training taking a large part of this default. Managers end up finding the addition too heavy, especially if they thought that training of people is one of the public school's mission and not one of private companies' purpose!footnote-1837.
Moreover, training to Compliance is not outside Compliance Law, which makes it specific!footnote-1838. Indeed, Compliance Law, corpus of Ex Ante mechanisms, targets to concretize "monumental goals"!footnote-1836. Set by public authorities, these monumental goals are internalized in companies in order for them to implement expected means in order for them to be reached in the future. These monumental goals can be negative (that corruption, money laundering, human rights violations, financial system crisis, etc. shall not occur), or positive (that ecological equilibrium shall be restored, that education shall be supplied, that healthcare shall be provided, etc.).
Compliance Law takes as criteria of effectivity for implemented mechanisms, their reality, but also their efficiency, that is their ability to make sure their goal is achieved.Training must achieve its goal. Thus, in Compliance, the purpose is not only the one of every training, that is transmitting a knowledge in order to making the student more learned!footnote-1839, but it is to contribute to the "monumental goal" of Compliance Law itself, which is a practical goal and not a scholar goal. For example, training about the applicable rules concerning corruption should have an effect to reduce corruption. And because corruption is itself a part of Compliance Law, in the same way the Regulation Authority can force to educate oneself or train others, the Supervision Authority should control not only the reality but also the effectivity and the efficiency of trainings.
However, the effectivity and the efficiency of Compliance training, because they are full part of Compliance Law, should be controlled by the Authority not only in their reality but also in their concrete ability to participate in the pursued goal. Thus, to keep the example of fight against corruption, training plays in it an essential role because the firm faces an alternative: either a mechanic solution consisting in setting literal interdictions, for example the interdiction to give up a value greater than a certain amount (according to the "anti-gift" rule) with the risk of getting around that every literal prescription offers, or a a solution by training consisting in explaining to everybody that it is wrong to corrupt but that it is acceptable to give samples. Training rather bets on spirit while the machine integrates the letter.
But this refers to the Regulation and Supervision Authority which will appreciate the company due diligences to reach the goals. One observes that, more and more, Authorities economize one step: rather than explain to the companies how educate people that work for them or with them, regulators educate directly. Is on this point remarkable the "guide" published in 2012, whose second edition of 2019 has been updated in 2020, jointly by the Department of Justice (DoJ) and the financial regulator (Securities &Exchanges Commission - SEC) to know everything about the Foreign Corruption Practices Act (FCPA). Through the explanations offered to everyone!footnote-1840 of the principles, the reminded definitions, the told cases, they are behaviors prescriptions which are formulated especially for foreign companies by the prosecutor authority and the American sanction authority, allied in this handbook which has such weight that we can consider that it is as valuable as a guideline, soft law creator of Law and rights.
In the concentration of all powers which is often reproached to the Regulator, there is also the magisterium of the teacher, the one who educates stakeholders. After having assumed, on the American model, that the regulator should be the "advocate" of the rules for companies, proving to them the interest that they have to respect them, it is logical that, in what some have called "Regulation, Act 2" this Regulator's pleading about the good news of Regulation for the firm justifying thus that this one integrates it in Ex Ante was prolonged in magistral lesson: the "regulator-institutor" explains to everybody how using rules for an always still in progress Law ("Better Regulation").
While training was before only peripheral, it is now at the heart. If it is so important, as every other "Compliance tool", it should take what we expect from it. The publications about training most often exhibit what it should be and a sorrowful spirit measures what sometimes appears as a huge gap between descriptions and realities sometimes reported.
Educating being without any doubt one of the most difficult actions, we should probably neither describe a paradise of maieutics nor write a hot paper against what already has the merit to exist, but list what we can expect from Training mechanisms when they apply to Compliance, because here, rather more than for the other tools, it is a mean obligation. Which content should have a training ? (I). Because Compliance Law targets training as one of the mean to reach "monumental goals" which constitutes the substantial heart of this branch of Law, the training dimension is not limited to stamped training, finding back this pedagogical dimension in almost all the other tools (II). In that, Training appears as the alpha and the omega of Compliance.
July 15, 2020
L'analyse des outils du Droit de la Compliance permet de mieux cerner ce qu'est le Droit de la Compliance dans son ensemble.
La "cartographie des risques" est analysée comme un outil essentiel de la Compliance, peut-être le plus important puisque ces cartographies sont des instruments élaborés en Ex Ante par les entreprises, ce qui correspond à la définition même du Droit de la Compliance, lequel est un Droit Ex Ante.
En cela, avant même de rechercher d'une façon plus analytique ce que peut constituer juridiquement l'activité pour une entreprise de dresser des cartes des risques qui l'entourent, pays par pays, activité par activité,
Le plus souvent l'on ne fait que décrire le mécanisme de cartographie des risques, sans le qualifier juridiquement. Le législateur ne fait pas davantage. Ainsi, dans l'article 17 de la loi dite "Sapin 2", la cartographie est décrite comme "la forme d'une documentation régulièrement actualisée et destinée à identifier, analyser et hiérarchiser les risques d'exposition de la société à des sollicitations externes aux fin de corruption, en fonction notamment des secteurs d’activité et des zones géographiques dans lesquels la société exerce son activité.". De la même façon, l'article 1ier de la loi dite "Vigilance" du 27 mars 2017 vise "une cartographie des risques destinées à leur identification, leur analyse et leur hiérarchisation".
Ce sont des descriptions, ce qui ne suffit pas à constituer une définition : le texte ne vise que la "forme" que cet élément d'information prend, sans en dire davantage. La lettre du texte descriptif inséré dans la seconde partie de l'article 17 de la Loi dite "Sapin 2, renvoyant à la première partie de cet article, le vise expressément comme une "modalité" d'une "l'obligation": cette "obligation" consiste à prendre des "mesures destinées à prévenir et à détecter la commission, en France ou à l'étranger, de faits de corruption ou de trafic d'influence". Pour bien remplir cette obligation, l'entreprise doit disposer de cet "outil" qu'est la cartographie des risques.
Si l'on sort du cas particulier de la lutte contre la corruption, la méthode est la même. Ainsi, de la même façon lorsqu'on consulte les documents par lesquels les Autorités de Régulation, par exemple l'Autorité de marché financier, présente la manière requise pour bien identifier les risques, y compris les risques de "non-conformité"!footnote-1734, l'on y trouve une description des façons de faire, mais sans davantage rencontrer de définition, encore moins de définition juridique de cette cartographie. L'on retrouve cette même tendance dans le procédé de la Compliance elle-même,
Peut-être que que cette absence de définition juridique de la Cartographie des risques n'est-elle elle-même que le reflet de l'absence plus générale du Droit dans dans l'ensemble des mécanismes de Compliance, absence paradoxale pour un espace si empli par ailleurs de la fureur pénale, sans doute parce que si souvent réduite dans sa présentation à un process mécanique, n'apparaissant juridique que sous son mauvais jour : celui de la sanction. Cette conception mécanique d'une Compliance comme process conduit à proposer que des machines et non des êtres humains en établissent les outils, notamment la cartographie des risques. Finis les compas et les cartes d'état-major, bonjour les bases de données et les connexions automatiques pour que des voyants d'alerte s'allument.
A lire les lois, il est acquis pour le législateur que la cartographie n'est qu'un "outil", la loi dite "Sapin 2" la désignant comme une "modalité". Prenant appui sur cette nature instrumentale, il faut donc chercher ce pour quoi est fait l'outil. Soit il est conçu pour que la loi ne soit pas méconnue, la cartographie repérant par exemple le risque accru que le Droit (souvent appelé la "réglementation") soit violé : c'est qu'il est usuellement désigné sous l'appellation étrange de "risque de conformité", terme que l'on trouve le plus souvent sous la plume de non-juristes et dont l'expression de "risque pénal" est sans doute l'ancêtre.
La cartographie permet alors à l'entreprise d'exécuter son "obligation de Compliance", c'est-à-dire de faire en sorte en Ex Ante que la loi soit respectée en éliminant par avance le risque qu'elle ne le soit pas. Ainsi dès 2008, l'OCDE définissait la cartographie des risques par ses objectifs, à savoir "mettre en place des moyens efficients pour réduire des risques de fraudes et de corruption et pour mettre en place des enquêtes efficients en concentrant les efforts sur les procédés efficaces". !footnote-1739.
Si la notion de corruption renvoie au Droit pénal, celle de fraudes est plus vaste que le Droit car si "la fraude corrompt tout" toute fraude n'est pas saisie par le Droit si la lutte pour la combattre n'emprunte pas un instrument juridique. Plus généralement et par ailleurs, de nombreux risques ne concernent en rien le Droit et devront pourtant être pris en considération par l'entreprise comme autant d'éléments d'information à considérer pour son action : les risques économiques, les risques naturels ou les risques politiques, ainsi que les "risques de marché", à propos desquels les Autorités de marchés, comme l'Autorité de marché financier dresse régulièrement une "cartographie des risques"!footnote-1740 . Mais cette cartographie-là ne semble pas regarder le Droit, alors même qu'elle ne relève déjà plus de la seule bonne gestion interne de l'entreprise.
Ainsi, si l'on choisit de consulte non plus les lois mais plutôt des cartographies élaborées par des entreprises, l'on doit constater leur diversité, sans savoir si ces cartographies constituent une "modalité" d'une obligation juridique, devenant de ce fait par transitivité un objet juridique, ou si elles constituent plutôt un élément de détermination de la stratégie de l'entreprise, appelant donc une qualification comme un "acte de management", ce qui est neutre pour le Droit.
L'on peut hésiter dans la réponse à apporter à la question, tout en soupçonnant l'existence d'une obligation générale de cartographier les risques, au-delà du cas particulier de la loi dite "Sapin 2" (dont le seul sujet est la corruption) car aujourd'hui de quoi le Droit ne se mêle-t-il pas ? Surtout d'un fait aussi important et prégnant et coûteux que la cartographie des risques, notamment dans des secteurs eux-mêmes "risqués" comme le secteur bancaire et financier, ou le secteur énergétique, ou (quittant la perspective sectorielle) dans l'espace digital ou dans le commerce international ?
Pourtant l'on observe à quel point la "cartographie des risques" n'a pour l'instant été que peu pensée en Droit. Il est vrai que le juriste, qui toujours ordonne, a du mal à suivre ... En effet, lorsqu'il est exposé que la cartographie doit viser à la fois des "risques économiques", des "risques politiques", et ces "risques de conformité" (c'est-à-dire de violation future du Droit), le juriste a du mal à comprendre comment les "risques de conformité" pourrait être un élément d'un outil qui n'est lui-même qu'un élément d'un "Droit de la Compliance", dont on lui affirme par ailleurs qu'il faut l'appeler "Droit de la Conformité" ? Même sans être expert de la théorie des ensembles, le juriste comprendre que cet élément de "conformité" ne peut pas être à la fois ce sous-ensemble et l'ensemble "conformité" dans lequel l'outil de la cartographie s'insère!footnote-1888.
L'on peut consulter de très nombreux écrits qui détaillent la cartographie, qui, par une sorte d'effet de miroirs, dressent des cartographies des exigences à laquelle l'entreprise doit se plier, pays par pays, textes par textes, secteurs par secteurs, loi par loi, aussi bien que des exigences de cartographies des risques de méconnaissance dans le futur de ces exigences ("risques de conformité").... Nous sommes face à un château de cartes, toujours plus minutieusement décrit, sans jamais rencontrer de qualification juridique.
Si l'on cherche pourtant une qualification juridique, ne serait-ce que pour produire de la sécurité juridique, l'on se demandera par exemple si l'acte de dresser une telle carte constitue un fait juridique ou un acte juridique. Je ne vois pas que la question ait été même posée. Pourtant, les conséquences de régime en sont immenses. En effet, à supposer que cela ne soit qu'un fait juridique, peut-il être un "fait justificatif" ? Les avocats y ont songé et ont plutôt trouvé du côté des Autorités publiques une porte fermée, lorsqu'ils ont voulu se prévalu des faits de diligences que constituent les cartographies de risques pour échapper à des sanctions...
Mais si dresser une cartographie n'était pas un simple fait mais pourquoi ne serait-ce pas un acte juridique ? La catégorie juridique des actes juridiques unilatéraux est là pour l'accueillir. Dans ce cas-là, la cartographie des risques engage l'entreprise et l'on observe que les autorités de régulation et de supervision, comme les juridictions, le conçoivent de plus en plus ainsi. Mais si l'entreprise est engagée par un tel acte juridique unilatéral que constitue la cartographie des risques, auprès de qui l'est-elle ? Plus précisément encore, si elle devient débitrice de l'obligation de cartographier, même si aucune loi particulière ne le lui prescrit d'une façon précise, alors il existe nécessairement un créancier bénéficiaire de cette obligation. Qui est-il ? Et pourquoi l'est-il ?
L'essentiel de cette contribution est de poser ces questions. Elles sont élémentaires. Elles ouvrent des pistes, celles que l'exercice de qualification juridique, de mise en catégorie juridique et de définition juridique, ouvrent.
Si pour l'instant l'exercice de qualification a été peu pratiqué, la cartographie des risques étant étrangement laissé aux algorithmes, aptes à entasser des données et inaptes à définir et à qualifier juridiquement, cela tient peut-être au fait plus général que le Droit et le risque sont peu souvent directement associés. Le mécanisme de bonne gestion que constitue la cartographie des risques, notamment dans les organisations qui ne sont pas des entreprises mais sont en charge d'administrer et adoptent sans contrainte cette bonne méthode!footnote-1735, y incite lui-même d'autant moins qu'on peut lire qu'il s'agirait, via ces cartographies, pour l'entité méticuleuse d'identifier par avance notamment le "risque juridique"!footnote-1731, c'est-à-dire l'application qui pourrait lui être fait du Droit, application incertaine, application contrariante. Combien de séminaires à succès sur le "risque pénal"... Comme en défense, les juristes exposent d'une façon trop générale que le Droit est constitué pour lutter contre le risque, lequel est un fait. En effet l'on répète à longueur de rapports que le système juridique est là pour "sécuriser", le réduisant parfois à cette performance technique tenant à sa nature même, par le principe de "sécurité juridique", que l'Etat par sa permanence, sa violence légitime, son imperium, nous donne en échange la paix, que le contrat par la "petite loi" qu'il constitue offre aux parties qui l'édictent un havre de sécurité pour cet îlot de stabilité dans un futur qu'on ne connait jamais tout à fait ; gare à nous si l'on sort de l'ordre juridique car l'on retombe dans le risque...
Ainsi, soit l'on est dans le Droit, assujettis aux exigences légales, et l'on bénéficie de sa sécurité spécifique, ce que les économistes désigneraient volontiers comme la "réglementation", soit on est dans la liberté de l'action, et l'on est alors dans le risque.... Il en serait comme pour les marchés, à propos desquels il faut choisir entre la liquidité et la sécurité : si l'on veut de la liberté d'action, alors il faut moins de réglementation, et donc moins de sécurité, plus de risque.... Cette opposition traditionnelle et si souvent relayée en économie est remise en cause par l'obligation de cartographie des risques car si ceux-ci sont établis, ce n'est pas pour les connaître en soi mais pour les combattre, au-delà de l'obligation classique d'information sur les risques, dont on trouve de nombreux ancrages dans les branches du Droit, notamment le Droit des sociétés, notamment celles exposés aux marchés financiers (I).
Dès lors, puisqu'il y a sous l'information classique de la prétention politique, de la volonté de "prévenir" le mal, qui se transforme rapidement dans la volonté de "promouvoir" le bien, le nouveau apparaît. La nouveauté est tout d'abord institutionnelle (II). En cela, la loi dite "Sapin 2", à travers l'instauration de l'Agence Française Anticorruption, a institutionnalisé ce mécanisme par lequel les entreprises "exposées" aux marchés financiers ou/et aux investisseurs internationaux, ou/et au commerce internationaux, présentent d'une façon claire et ordonnée -c'est-à-dire par une cartographie - les risques qu'ils ont identifiés dans leurs actions présentes et futures, rendant plus concrètement des comptes sur leur organisation structurelle d'analyse des risques. Des autorités publiques vont superviser les entreprises exposées à ces risques. Certes les banques y sont juridiquement accoutumées, mais les banques sont dans un secteur qui est régulé et supervisé. Ce qui est remarquable tient au fait que le Droit de la Compliance vient appliquer, via l'exigence de cartographie des risques, la technique juridique de supervision à des entreprises qui agissent dans des secteurs qui ne sont pas supervisés, voire qui ne sont parfois pas même régulés, par exemple l'immense champ du commerce international. De cette façon, ces entreprises, qui ne sont pas sectoriellement régulées, deviennent structurellement transparentes et supervisées au titre du Droit de la Compliance, qui contrôle notamment l'effectivité et l'efficacité du mécanisme de cartographie des risques.
Le principe libéral selon lequel une entreprise ne rend compte que de son comportement et non de son organisation interne en est entamé, puisque la cartographie des risques est un mécanisme Ex Ante qui relève de la structure même des entreprises et dont l'effectivité est contrôlée par les Autorités publiques. Ainsi, par la seule technique imposée par le Droit, la méthode de transparence, naguère propre aux entreprises supervisées devient générale à toutes les entreprises agissant sur des marchés ordinaires, dès l'instant qu'un risque existe. C'est une nouveauté radicale, puisque le risque dont il s'agit n'est pas un risque de secteur et qu'une crise générale n'est plus à craindre. La rupture est ainsi opérée avec le Droit de la supervision qui jusqu'ici était insécable du Droit de la Régulation, l'obligation de cartographie des risques s'appliquant à tout "opérateur crucial" exposé au risque de corruption, en ce que celle-ci doit être combattue d'une façon globale.
Dès lors, la cartographie des risque est un outil qui, au-delà de la simple description, prend sa définition d'une façon téléologique, comme est élaboré tout élément du Droit de la Compliance. Son but est de prévenir des risques qui compromettent des ambitions qui ne sont pas toujours de nature économique mais qui sont de nature politique (III). La lutte contre la corruption n'en est qu'un exemple, la loi dite "vigilance" exigeant elle-aussi une "cartographie des risques" en matière de droits humains, tandis que cette technique est reprise par des textes plus ou moins contraignant en matière environnementale. Certes des entreprises en position de porter de telles ambitions politiques, de force - en raison de leur position - ou de gré - par leur raison d'être ou par leur politique de responsabilité sociétale -, doivent le supporter, les transformant en acteurs politiques majeurs. Elles ne sauraient pour autant se substituer aux Autorités publiques, lesquelles d'une part fixent les "buts monumentaux" qu'il s'agit d'atteindre d'une part et qui d''autre part supervisent en Ex Ante et en Ex Post la mise en place et le fonctionnement de ces outils au sein des entreprises cruciales.
June 18, 2020
This working document, "The Dreamed Compliance Law", is the basis for an article, written in French, "La compliance" (Compliance), inserted in the collective work to be published under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Racine, Le Droit économique du XXIème siècle (The XXIe century Economic Law , in the Serie Droit & Economie, LGDJ-Lextenso, 2020.
No one can know what the Law of the 21st century will be. Pretending to know it is just not to realize its ignorance. Why then writing about it, since the future is always surprising?
One can only write about the unknown part of the Law of tomorrow. If the future is then modeled on what was written, so much the better for the prophet, a tribute that can, for example, be paid to Pierre Godé
Lévi-Strauss argued that teaching is defined as dreaming out loud. Teaching and describing the Law of a century that we will never know gives even more freedom to dream about it. This freedom increases when the object is a branch of Law in the process of being born, state of the stammering "Compliance Law" of which some still maintain, as it was made for Regulation Law, that there is not existing. The hand can then, as it pleases, trace its beautiful or hideous features: what face will Compliance Law have, as soon as we assume that it will exist?
It may as well be a nightmare (I) as a happy dream (II).
It is up to us to choose in which category this branch of Law will flourish. Because what we can be sure of is this fulfillment. It is certainly already taking sides to presuppose the very existence of Compliance Law. Not only to consider it possibility with hostility because to be an enemy of something or someone is already to recognize their existence. Before that, two objections radically block the very existence of Compliance Law and their shadow remains in the future of it
Firstly, it is said that Compliance does not come under Law, but for example only ethics since it would consist in keeping well in companies which care about the interest of others or the planet, for example by spontaneous care of the environment; Compliance being a crystallization of social responsibility, the one for which we have our conscience, we express our "raison d'être" and we are not accountable
Second, there would be many Compliance mechanisms but insufficient to constitute a branch of Law. Indeed we would find Compliance in Company Law, Labor Law, Financial Law, Banking Law, Criminal Law, Administrative Law, European Law, International Law, etc.
These classic branches, which have been formed for so long, depending on the point of view adopted, would gain in modernity or be threatened with decay by this kind of extension which will be Compliance. There would thus be as many "little legal sectoral rules" as there are branches of law. These new internal developments would be like a new bud, on which care should be taken - if the tree regains its strength - or a weed to be eradicated - if the French garden loses its perspective.
Thus the matter being scattered as many as specialist lawyers, often criminalists or specialists in banking and Financial Law, then tomorrow all specialists in all branches of Law, this could constitute the most radical obstacle to the constitution of Compliance Law. Indeed, we would come back to confuse Compliance and the "modernization" of Law itself as a whole, since it would only be a question of perfecting each of the classic branches of the legal system.
If we keep in this half-sleep that is any projection in the future the hope of a constituted branch of Law, we must discard these two perspectives of annihilation, either in the total absence of Law or in recovery by all Law. To dismiss the sorrowful spirits who see no future in Compliance and keep only its enemies in the space of this article, let us assume that Compliance Law will exist in the 21st century. In what form and by what means, in the palm of which institutions, in the shadow of which legal system? Since it is a question of projecting ourselves onto the black screen of our nights of dreamy lawyers, let us take the current state only as a trailer. Like the one developed by the genius who by the contempt not only brought down into the flames of hell the cinema which has become a consumer industry with which producers force-feed us but offered us the vision of its future. What is what we see today the trailer? We let our imagination run wild since the trailer films are autonomous works compared to the film which follows them.
We have no idea what will happen and what we are watching from the brief and violent current images of Compliance Law, the cinema of which rather makes a hero of the whistleblower
Everything will depend on the concept that we will retain of Compliance Law. Because the script is not written, because Compliance Law is a Law with a political dimension, that it is defined by the ambitions that we can claim to have by setting monumental goals that we are going to achieve, a claim that will make it one major branch of the Law of tomorrow, or we can abandon any claim, lower our heads and arms, and reject any claim. It is then that the power of Compliance Law, which will be no less great, will turn against us, human beings, as in a nightmare.
Mélanges Pierre Godé, off-trade book, 2019.
Godé, P., Le Droit de l'avenir (Un Droit en devenir), 1999.
It is in particular the idea of the movement of analysis of Law & Literature which poses that by telling the past in one way or another, by thus inventing it, Law, and in particular the Judge, invents the future and being written, creates it. On this movement which was powerful in the United States, v. Cabrillac, R. et Frison-Roche, M.-A., Droit et Littérature, à paraître.
See infra I. Compliance Law as nightmarish octopus.
On the fact that "social responsibility" makes it possible not to be legally responsible, cf. Supiot, A., Du nouveau au self-service normatif: la responsabilité sociale des entreprises, 2004; this is not the subject of this article and this question will not be developed here.
See, for instance, ..., Replace Regulation by norm by Regulation by Data, 2020.
See, for instance, Frison-Roche, M.-A., Compliance Law (monography), 2016 ; Compliance Law, 2020.
On what the cinema does with the whistleblower, with the availability of trailers and extracts from the films, see Frison-Roche, M.-A., introduction of the article The impossible unicity of the legal category of whistleblowers, 2019.
Frison-Roche, M.-A., ... (retrouver sur LinkedIn).
May 28, 2020
Full reference: Frison-Roche, M.-A., L'impossible unicité juridique de la catégorie des "lanceurs d'alertes" ("The impossible legal unicity of the category of "whistleblowers""), in Chacornac, J. (dir.), Lanceurs d'alertes, regards comparatistes, ("Whistleblowers, comparative perspectives"), Publications of the Centre français de droit comparé ("French Comparative Law Center"), May 2020, Volume 21, p.13-31.
Read the article (in French).
Read the general presentation of the collective book in which this article is published
Read the bilingual working paper which had served of basis for this article.
Read the presentation of the conference "Les lanceurs d'alertes: glose" (Whistleblowers: glose") and especially the slides elabored for the colloquium organized by the Centre français de droit comparé ("French Comparative Law Center") on 23th of November 2018 under the direction of Jérôme Chacornac
Introduction of the article
"Whistleblowers". This is a new expression. Which is a great success. Barely heard once, we hear it everywhere ...
A topic not of course or knowledge test, but rather a topic of daily conversation. Because it is spoken to us every day, in more or less gracious terms. For example President Donald Trump on October 1, 2019 declared to the press "want to question" the whistleblower who would have illegally denounced him and would not, according to him, have the right to conceal his identity, proof in this according to him of the lying character of his assertions against him, while his lawyer indicates on October 6, 2019 that he is not speaking on behalf of a single whistleblower thus taken to task but of a plurality of people who gave information against the President of the United States. Even the most imaginative screenwriters would not have written such brutal and rapid twists and turns. Spectators, we are waiting for the next episode, secretly hoping for the escalation.
And precisely if we go to the cinema, it is still a whistleblower whose dedication and success, we are told about, even the drama, for the benefit of global society, and in particular democracy, since the secrets are fought for the benefit of the truth. The Secret Man designates Mark Felt as the first whistleblower. Returning to what we often present as being a more "serious" media!footnote-1391, we listen to France-Culture and here is another story told by a historian who worked as an archivist on events that political power would have liked to keep hidden by possibly destroying their traces but which its trade led to preserve: here it is expressly presented to the studious listeners like a "whistleblower" .... While the same radio tries to find the one who could well be, as in a kind of contest the "first whistleblower"!footnote-1727? .... This rewriting of History can be defended because ultimately what did other Voltaire do for Calas, or Zola for Dreyfus?
It is also a subject of legislative discussion since in the United States the Dodd-Frank law of 2010 inserted in the law of 1934 which established the Securities & Exchanges Commission a complete device of remuneration and remuneration of the whistleblowers, whereas after having developed flexible but guiding lines in this regard in 2012!footnote-1698, the European Commission published on November 20, 2018 the text of what will become a Directive intended to give a unified European status to the character, in the system gradually developed to protect the one who was presented in 2018 as that "cannot be punished for having done what is right".
In Europe, the Directive first approved by a Resolution of the European Parliament on April 16, 2019 on the protection of persons denouncing breaches of Union Law and then adopted on October 7, 2019 (Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of European Union on the Protection of Persons who Report Violations of European Union Law, different title, it should be noted, will have to be transposed into the laws of the Member States within the next two years. , since only "violations of Union Law" are targeted, but the character of the "whistleblower" is more generally targeted: he is "whole"!footnote-1699.
In short, the whistleblower is a star!footnote-1390. A sort of historical figure, covered in blows and glory, going from Voltaire to Snowden, both of whom find themselves embodied on the screens!footnote-1681 ....,
Consecrated by law, which associates with it a legal regime of protection to such an extent that, like a Nessus tunic, it is this legal regime which will define the character and not the reverse. When we read the law of December 9, 2016 relating to transparency in the fight against corruption and the modernization of economic life, known as "Sapin 2", we notice that the Legislator makes much of this character, since 'he dedicates its chapter II to him!footnote-1682: "From the protection of whistleblowers", and that it is by his very protection that he formally opens the door of Right to him.
But why a plural? Admittedly when we read the recitals of the Community Directive of October 7, 2019 on the protection of whistleblowers!footnote-1702, it is only a list of all the subjects on which it is a good idea to protect them, which therefore prompts us to see in this plural only the index of this non-exhaustive list of subjects which it is good to tell us, a sign of the lack of definition of who should alert us. Reading the French law known as "Sapin 2" makes it less severe but more perplexing. Indeed, this plurality referred to by the title of the chapter devoted to "whistleblowers", there is no longer any question in the rest of the law, in the very definition which follows, article 6 which opens this chapter devoted to "whistleblowers" offering the reader immediately a singular since it begins as follows: "A!footnote-1684 whistleblower is a person ...". No mention of diversity. The art of legislative writing would however have required that the qualifying article not only be singular but that it should not yet be undefined. Stendhal if he had still deigned to have the law for bedside book would have wanted to find at the beginning of chapter a sentence like: "The!footnote-1683 whistleblower is a person ...".
Thus seem to contradict themselves within the law "Sapin 2 the very title which presents the character, in that it uses a defined plural (the) while the defining article which presents it is in the undefined singular (one). ...
Here is a first reason not to advance any more but in a very careful way, in this "step by step" that constitutes a reading word for word: a gloss. This consists of taking the expression itself literally. The second reason for this technical choice is that the gloss is well suited to the introduction of a collective work, thus allowing more targeted developments to take place in other contributions, on the techniques, the difficulties and the limits of this protection, or on its history, or the reasons for the arrival in French law of these whistleblowers and the way they develop, or not, elsewhere.
I am therefore going to content myself with taking this already legal expression to the letter: The (I) whistle (III). blowers (II).
May 15, 2020
Full reference : Frison-Roche, M.-A., Avocat et Compliance - L'avenir du personnage et de son outil : Droit, Humanisme et Défense ("Attorney and Compliance - the future of the character and his tool: Law, Humanism and Defense),article of synthesis fo the collective publication "Compliance", Dalloz Avocat, March 2020, April 2020, June 2020, Dalloz Avocat, June 2020, p.321-324
Read the editorial of the March 2020 Issue, presenting the problematic : "The Attorney, Vector of Conviction in the New Compliance System".
Summary of the article: In the future, the place of lawyers in compliance mechanisms, including in Ex Ante, will develop for three reasons, which emerge from all of the contributions. First of all because Compliance is a matter of Law, a lawyer is a lawyer and in the future it is a matter of Law and not on technical terms that Compliance demands its meaning and legitimacy. Then because Conformity must be defined in relation to the person, the lawyer expresses the humanist conception of the rules and Compliance Law will only be tolerable in the future if it is for "monumental goal" of protection of the person. Finally, because Compliance with ordinary repression, that the lawyer in his heart defends and must be and remain at the center of Compliance Law.
April 24, 2020
Its subject is the confrontation between the current health crisis situation and the Compliance Law.
Summary. After defining Compliance Law, distinguishing the procedural and poor definition and the substantial and rich definition, the starting point is to admit the aporia: the type of health crisis caused by Covid-19 will be renewed and it is imperative to prevent it, even to manage it, then to organize the crisis exit. Public Authorities are legitimate to do so, but because this type of crisis being global and the State being consubstantially linked to borders, States are hardly powerful. Their traditional International Law shows their limits in this current crisis and one cannot hope that this configulration will improve radically.
In contrast, some companies and markets, notably the financial markets, are global. But the markets are not legitimate to carry out such missions and counting on the generosity of certain large companies is far too fragile in front of the "monumental goal" that is the prevention of the next health crisis, crisis which must never happen.
How to get out of this aporia?
By Compliance Law, basis of, in a literal and strong sense, the "Law of the Future".
We need to be inspired by the Banking and Financial Compliance Law. Designed in the United States after the 1929 crisis to tend towards the "monumental goal" of the absence of a new devastating crisis in the country and the world, this set of new legal mechanisms gave duty and power of supervision, regulation and compliance to market authorities and central bankers. These are independent of governments but in constant contact with them. Today, they claim to have as first priority the fight against climate change. Now and for the future, they must also be given the responsibility and the powers to prevent a global health disaster, similar to a global ecological disaster, similar to a global financial disaster. This does not require a modification of the texts because their mandate consists in fighting instability. Stability must become a primary legal principle, of which the fight against monetary instability was only a first example. By the new use that central banks must make of it by preventing and managing health crises, Compliance Law will ensure that the future will be not catastrophic.
April 15, 2020
March 23, 2020
When Facebook "Invite" Each Internet User to Act Against COVID-19 by Redirecting Him or Her Towards Public Information Center, Is It by Legal Obligation (Compliance) or by Corporate Social Responsibility? With Which Consequences?
Without any request, on his or her newsfeed, those who surfs on the social network built by Facebook, has found on 23 of March 2020, in the morning, the following message :
« X (prénom de l'internaute), agissez maintenant pour ralentir la propagation du coronavirus (COVID-19) Retrouvez les actualités des autorités sanitaires et institutions publiques, des conseils pour ralentir la propagation du coronavirus et des ressources pour vous et vos proches dans le Centre d’information sur le coronavirus (COVID-19)" ("X (user's name), act now to slow down the spread of the Coronavirus (COVID-19). Find the health authorities and public institutions' news, advices to slow down the spread of the Coronavirus for you and your entourage in the Information Center about Coronavirus (COVID-19) »).
This corresponds to the more general declaration done the same day by Kang-Xing Jin, director of Health at Facebook, who declares : "In response to the coronavirus outbreak, Facebook is supporting the global public health community’s work to keep people safe and informed. Since the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus a public health emergency in January, we’ve taken steps to make sure everyone has access to accurate information, stop misinformation and harmful content, and support global health experts, local governments, businesses and communities.".
Thanks, Facebook to indicate how to do ; by the way, thanks to having invited me to do it. By the way, is it really an « invitation » ? Since the expression is « act now ». Just miss the exclamation point, and the pointed finger of Uncle Sam for « war effort »!footnote-1770.
If in Law, we can consider « invitation », it would be not to the "invitation" that in the past Bank of France did to shareholders banks to refinance a bank which risks to be soon into difficulties that we could consider, invitation from which the invited cannot really escape. No, obviously no, it is just the same message that you and me can write on our Facebook pages to tell similar things about the same purpose ! But, Facebook would be, like you and me, editor of contents ?
Questions and difficulties which encourage to proceed to the legal analysis to know under which title Facebook posted such a message.
The first hypothesis is that this firm has acted spontaneously, following its « Corporate Social Responsibility » (I) If it is the right qualification, with regards to the content of the message, legal consequences are important because this firm, without generalizing to others, by the expression of its care of common good, shows, by transitivity, that it is an editor.
The second hypothesis starts from the observation that Facebook is a « crucial digital operator ». In this perspective, the firm is constraint to Compliance Law (II). It is the reason why, it is constraint by specific obligations, that excludes the spontaneous message emission qualification. If it is the right qualification, with regards to the content of the message, legal consequences are also important and of a totally different nature. Indeed, the qualification leads to develop the relation between the obligation to fight against fake news and malicious websites towards those of redirecting towards public websites, benefiting for the operator of a reliability presumption.
Read the developments below.
March 22, 2020
This working paper is the basis for an article in the French Law Journal Le Clunet.
When we compare the terms "Compliance" and "Extraterritoriality", it is often with dissatisfaction, even anger and indignation. On the momentum, after having expressed a principle of disapproval of such a merger, attention is focused on how we can fight against it, to break the link between Compliance and Extraterritoriality. But do we have to go so fast? Is this negative initial assessment correct?
Indeed, thus gone, it is frequently explained that the binding mechanisms of Compliance are suffered, that they come from abroad!footnote-1750, that they apply with efficiency but in an illegitimate way, without agreement of the one who must submit to it, whose resistance is therefore certainly ineffective but nevertheless justified. In the same spirit, when we start to shell the cases, like so many scars, sort of rosary, even crown of thorns, BNPP case!footnote-1718, Astom case!footnote-1717, etc., the wounds not yet closed turn into reproaches made against the rules, public authorities, even reproaches made against named people.
We are leaving this kind of complaint against X, which targets what would be this appalling "Compliance", this Law which would be both hostile and mechanical which would not have been able to stay within the limits of borders, Compliance being thus placed in contrast to sovereignty and protection, which presuppose staying within its limits!footnote-1716 and being able to protect companies from abroad. More concretely, this presentation targets more directly the United States, which uses "the legal weapon", slipped under what is then designated as "the artifice of the Law" with extraterritorial scope. But this effect would in reality be the very object of the whole: their hegemonic will to better organize at least a global racket, notably through the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and at best a world government through notably the embargoes.Those who believed otherwise would be naive or foolish. This silences the opponents because who likes this costume? So the world would be put in a ruled cut; what the mafia could not have done, Compliance Law would have obtained, offering the whole world to the United States thanks to the extraterritoriality of its national Law.
Compliance Law would thus become the very negation of Law, since it has the effect, even the purpose (barely concealed by strategic, powerful and shameless States), of counting borders for nothing, whereas Public International Law, in that it is built between the sovereign subjects of law that are the States presupposes the primary respect for borders to better exceed them while Private International Law takes the same postulate to better welcome foreign Law in situations presenting a foreign element!footnote-1726. Jurists believed in the force of Law; by Compliance, we would return to the sad reality that only the powerful, here the United States, dominate and - ironically - it is under the pretext of Law that they do it. It would be necessary to be well duped, or accomplice, to see there still legal where there is only the balance of powers. When one is more intelligent or skilful than that, one understands that the "small" can only be "subject" to the Compliance Law, one would have to be powerful to be the normative source and its enforcement agent. It is then towards this mis-named Department of Justice (DoJ) that the fearful, hateful and resigned glances turn.
If you see it that way, what should you do then? The answer is obvious: react!
It is necessary to save the sovereignty, France, companies, the Law itself. If that is how the question is posed, how can we disagree? It is therefore necessary to destroy the Compliance Law and the extra-territoriality of American Law which had found this "Trojan horse", an expression so frequently used. This is the basis for the administrative reports available, for example the Berger-Lellouche!footnote-1719 parliamentary reports and the Gauvainfootnote-1720 report. Both of them broadly develop the two preceding claims, namely that the extra-priority of compliance mechanisms is illegitimate and harmful, since it is a mechanism invented by the Americans and harming the Europeans, or even invented by the Americans to harm Europeans, the description being made in much more violent terms than those used here. The description seems acquired, the reflections therefore relate to the remedies. The reaction is most often to "block" the Compliance Law in its extraterritorial effect.
But without discussing the effectiveness of the remedies proposed downstream, it is necessary to return to this description so widely shared made upstream. Because many elements on the contrary lead to affirm that ComplianceLaw first of all and by nature can only be extraterritorial and that it must be. Whether or not the State in which it was created has malicious intentions. The description which is made to us most often describes particular cases from which we draw generalities, but we cannot reduce Compliance Law to the already cooled cases, as BNPP case, or to the always hot case of the American embargo on Iran. Furthermore, one cannot take the issue of embargoes and draw conclusions, legitimate for it, but which would apply to the whole of Compliance Law. The fact that theCompliance Law is a branch of Law at the stage still of emergence can lead to this confusion which consists in taking the part for the whole, but it is very regrettable because what is justified for the embargoes does not is in no way relevant for all Compliance Law, of which precisely the Law of embargoes is only a small part, even an abusive use. This overlapping is not often perceived, because the definition of Compliance Law and its criterion are not clearly enough defined, namely the existence of a "monumental goal"!footnote-1725, which does not exist in an embargo decided unilaterally by an order decreed by the President of the United States, but which exists in all other cases and fully justifies extraterritoriality, extraterritoriality which is even consubstantial with Compliance Law (I).
Once we have distinguished the embargoes, as an atypical, sometimes even illegitimate part, of Compliance Law, we should continue this work of distinction by emphasizing that the United States has certainly invented Compliance Law!footnote-1721 but only developed a mechanical concept for the prevention and management of systemic risks. Europe has taken up this systemic conception of the protection of systems, for example financial or banking, but superimposed another conception, drawing on its deep humanist tradition!footnote-1722, whose protection of personal data is only an example and whose monumental goal is the protection of the human being. This primary concern then justifies the European use of Compliance mechanisms to interfere with global objects regardless of their location, especially the environment, and to block the entry onto the ground of objects that enter, which is contrary to Competition Law but builds a legitimate barrier under this Compliance Law, in the indifference of an extraterritorial origin (II).
Indeed, this branch of the new Law which is Compliance Law is not reducible to Competition Law!footnote-1723, any more than it is not reducible to a method. It is a substantial, extraterritorial Law because the "monumental goals" which give it substantial unity are extraterritorial. This can directly contribute to the future of a Europe which on the one hand will be able to pursue, in an extraterritorial manner, monumental humanist goals, in the field of the environment or the protection of personal information or access to the Law (in particular by the technique of compliance programs) and which, on the other hand, by the techniques of traceability of products!footnote-1724, will have the means not to bring in products manufactured in an indecent manner, except in countries which do not grant value than in Competition Law to enter the WTO.
Read the developments below.
March 18, 2020
Référence générale : Frison-Roche, M.-A., L'avocat, porteur de conviction dans le nouveau système de Compliance, Dalloz Avocat, mars 2020.
This editorial opens a thematic collective publication about Compliance.
A synthetic article on all the contributions, published in May 2020, mirrors it: "Attorney and Compliance - The future of the character and his tool: Law, Humanism and Defense"
English Summary of the article (written in French) :
If we perceive Compliance Law as an aggression of the private company and a binding set of mechanisms that have no meaning and added value for it, then the attorney has a utility: to defend the business. It can do so not only during the sanctions phase, but also to prevent it.
But this function is not central.
He and she becomes so if we understand Compliance Law as being a body of substantial rules, pursuing a "monumental goal": the protection of the person, goal injected by political bodies and taken up by the operator. From this, the company must convince everyone to take it back, inside the company and outside. In a general and contradictory debate, the attorney carries this conviction, because he and shed is always convincing those who in the end judge (market, public opinion, etc.) that is their raison d'être.
Jan. 17, 2020
This Working Paper written in English is the basis for an article published in French in the French journal Dalloz Avocat , in March 2020.
Summary of the working Paper.
If we perceive Compliance Law as an aggression of the private company and a binding set of mechanisms that have no meaning and added value for it, then the attorney has a utility: defending the business. It can do so not only during the sanctions phase, but also to prevent it.
But this function is not central.
It becomes so if we understand Compliance Law as a body of substantial rules, pursuing a "monumental goal": the protection of the person, goal injected by political bodies and taken up by the operator. From this, the company must convince everyone to take it back, inside the company and outside. In a general and contradictory debate, the attorney carries this conviction, because he and she is always convincing those who at the end judge (market, public opinion, etc.) that is their raison d'être.
(In this short document, the pop-ups refer to the different works that develop each of the points)
Dec. 18, 2019
The use of Intellectual Property as Regulatory and Compliance Tool (Le maniement de la propriété intellectuelle comme outil de régulation et de compliance), in "Major cases in Intellectual Property" ("Les Grands Arrêts de la propriété intellectuelle"
Référence complète : Frison-Roche, M.-A., Le maniement de la propriété intellectuelle comme outil de régulation et de compliance, in Vivant, M. (dir.), Les Grands Arrêts de la propriété intellectuelle, 3ième éd., 2019, 9-11, p.43-53.
This contribution is written in French.
Intellectual Property, which comes from the State and is incorporated into public policy, can be designed not to reward the creator a posteriori, but to encourage others to innovate. It is then an Ex Ante regulatory tool, an alternative to the subsidy. If private copying is an exception, it is not in relation to the principle of Competition but in an insertion into a system of incentives, starting from the costs borne by the creator of the first innovation: the rights holder is then protected , not only according to a balance of interests involved but in order not to discourage innovative potentials and the sector itself. (1st decision) ;
The sectoral policy then permeates Intellectual Property, used to regulate a sector, for example that of the drug. While it is true that a laboratory wishing to market a generic drug did not wait for the expiration of the patent for the original drug to do so, it is however not relevant to sanction this anticipation by a few days because the investments made by the holder of the Intellectual Property right have been made profitable by this one and because the public authorities favor the generics in a concern of public health (2nd decision).
Systemic interest prevails and therefore Internet service providers have to bear the costs of blocking access while they are irresponsible because of the texts. This obligation to pay is internalized by Compliance Law because they are in the digital system best able to put an end to the violation of Intellectual Property rights which the ecosystem requires to be effective. (3rd decision).
Read the contribution (in French).
Dec. 11, 2019
► Référence complète : Frison-Roche, M.-A., Articuler les principes gouvernant les sanctions et les principes animant le Droit de la Compliance, décembre 2019.
► Ce document de travail a servi de base à la première des conférences faites dans le colloque qui s'est tenu sous la direction scientifique de Marie-Anne Frison-Roche et de Lucien Rapp, Les incitations, outils de la Compliance, le 12 décembre 2019, à Toulouse,
🚧 voir le document de travail, sous-jacent au thème général: Incitations et Droit de la Compliance, ayant conclu le colloque
Résumé du document de travail :
Lire ci-dessous les développements.
Nov. 27, 2019
This Working Paper served as the basis for an intervention in the conference organized in the conference cycle organized by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) on the theme: Compliance Tools, in collaboration with many university partners: this first conference is organized in collaboration with the Sciences po Economics Department and is held on November 28, 2019 at Sciences po and deals with the more specific theme of Risk mapping.
Is the consideration by Law of the Risk Mapping mechanism so new?
At first glance yes, and one might even be surprised at this novelty, since this rational anticipation of risks should have been recognized for a long time. But this is perhaps due to the more general fact that Risk itself has only recently become an autonomous legal object in Economic Law, in particular because Risk does not have at all the same position in Competition Law and in Regulation Law (I) .. Its position is even opposed in the both, Risk becoming central in Regulation Law. Compliance Law being the extension of Regulatory Law, it is also built on the "concern" of Risk and the internalization of this consideration in enterprises therefore takes the form of mapping.
A closer look maybe not,even before the specific French laws, called "Sapin 2" and "Vigilance" and beyond them, case law decisions giving a general scope to maps drawn up by operators, or increasing the obligation that 'they have to do it (II). In this, general and precise technical Law offers points of support for Compliance Law, strengthening it in its tools.
Nov. 20, 2019
Référence générale: Frison-Roche, M.-A., Le législateur, peintre de la vie, in Archives de philosophie du droit (APD), Tome 61, 2019, pp. 339-410.
Résumé : Peindre si bien que la toile est un objet vivant est un exploit technique qui fût atteint par peu. Francis Bacon obtînt de la toile qu'elle fasse son affaire de préserver en elle la vie, tandis que Carbonnier, avec une semblable modestie devant la toile et le métier, obtînt que la Loi ne soit qu'un cadre, mais qu'elle ne laisse pourtant cette place-là à personne et surtout pas à l'opinion publique, afin que chacun puisse à sa façon et dans ce cadre-là faire son propre droit, sur lequel le législateur dans sa délicatesse et pour reprendre les termes du Doyen n'appose qu'un "mince vernis". Ces deux maîtres de l’art construisaient des cadres avec des principes rudimentaires pour que sur cette toile le mouvement advienne par lui-même. Ainsi la Législateur créée par Carbonnier offrit à chaque famille la liberté de tisser chaque jour son droit. Mais c’est pourtant bien au Législateur seul que revint et doit revenir l’enfance de l’art consistant à tendre la toile sur le métier. Il est alors possible, comme le fit Bacon, d’obtenir un objet immobile permet que surgisse sans cesse les figures mobiles. Les gribouillis réglementaires sont à mille lieux de cet Art législatif-là.
L'article ne comprend pas de reproductions, celles-ci figurent dans le document de travail.
Nov. 19, 2019
En Droit, quelle est la portée de la décision du Conseil d'administration du 15 novembre 2019 de la Banque Européenne d'Investissement d'exclure les investissements et prêts en matières d'énergie fossile ?
Le conseil d'administration de la Banque européenne d'investissement s'est réuni le 15 novembre 2019.
Il a décidé d'exclure les financements, sous quelque forme que ceux-ci prennent
I. PREMIERE QUESTION : EST-CE EN TANT QUE LA BEI EST UNE "BANQUE PUBLIQUE" QU'ELLE FIXE UNE POLITIQUE CLIMATIQUE D'INVESTIMENT ?
II. SECONDE QUESTION : EST-CE AU TITRE DE SA "RAISON D'ETRE" EXPRIMEE PAR LES ACTIONNAIRES
Nov. 16, 2019
The Government itself collects personal data on social networks, without the consent of the parties concerned, but for a good cause: the fight against tax fraud. What should we think about it legally?
The Finance Bill has proposed to the Parliament to vote an article 57 whose title is: Possibilité pour les administrations fiscales et douanières de collecter et exploiter les données rendues publiques sur les sites internet des réseaux sociaux et des opérateurs de plateformes (translation: Possibility for the tax and customs administrations to collect and exploit the data made public on the websites of social networks and platform operators).
Its content is as is in the text voted on in the National Assembly as follows:
"(1) I. - On an experimental basis and for a period of three years, for the purposes of investigating the offenses mentioned in b and c of 1 of article 1728, in articles 1729, 1791, 1791 ter, in 3 °, 8 ° and 10 ° of article 1810 of the general tax code, as well as articles 411, 412, 414, 414-2 and 415 of the customs code, the tax administration and the customs administration and indirect rights may, each as far as it is concerned, collect and exploit by means of computerized and automated processing using no facial recognition system, freely accessible content published on the internet by the users of the online platform operators mentioned in 2 ° of I of article L. 111-7 of the consumer code.
(2) The processing operations mentioned in the first paragraph are carried out by agents specially authorized for this purpose by the tax and customs authorities.
(3) When they are likely to contribute to the detection of the offenses mentioned in the first paragraph, the data collected are kept for a maximum period of one year from their collection and are destroyed at the end of this period. However, when used within the framework of criminal, tax or customs proceedings, this data may be kept until the end of the proceedings.
(4) The other data are destroyed within a maximum period of thirty days from their collection.
(5) The right of access to the information collected is exercised with the assignment service of the agents authorized to carry out the processing mentioned in the second paragraph under the conditions provided for by article 42 of law n ° 78-17 of January 6, 1978 relating to data processing, the files and freedoms.
(6) The right to object, provided for in article 38 of the same law, does not apply to the processing operations mentioned in the second paragraph.
(7) The terms of application of this I are set by decree of the Council of State.
(8) II. - The experiment provided for in I is the subject of an evaluation, the results of which are forwarded to Parliament as well as to the National Commission for Data Protection at the latest six months before its end. "
This initiative provoked many comments, rather reserved, even after the explanations given by the Minister of Budget to the National Assembly.
What to think of it legally?
Because the situation is quite simple, that is why it is difficult: on the one hand, the State will collect personal information without the authorization of the persons concerned, which is contrary to the very object of the law of 1978 , which results in full disapproval; on the other hand, the administration obtains the information to prosecute tax and customs offenses, which materializes the general interest itself.
So what about it?
Oct. 15, 2019
This working paper has been the basis for the introduction in the presentation made in the conference organized by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) on the topic : Compliance Tools, in collaboration with many Universities partners.
This first conference has been organized with the Sciences po Economic Department on November 28, 2019 on Risks Mapping.
This working paper is articulated with a second working paper, being the basis of the first development of this conference, on the caractère nouveau ou non en Droit de l'obligation de cartographie des risques.
Updated: Oct. 8, 2019 (Initial publication: Nov. 22, 2018)
This working paper served as a basis for a conference done in French for the Centre de droit comparé (Center for Comparative Law) in Paris on 23 November 2018.
Updated, it has served as a basis for an article published in French in a book of the Société de Législation comparé (Society of Comparative Legislation).
"The whistleblowers". This is a new expression. Which wins a full success. Barely heard once, we hear it everywhere ...
A theme not only of academic teaching, but rather a topic of daily conversation. Because it is every day that we speak about it, in terms more or less graceful. For example President Donald Trump on October 1, 2019 told the press he "wants to interrogate" the whistleblower who would have unlawfully denounced him and would not have, according to him, the right to conceal his own identity, evidence in this according Donald Trump of the false character of his assertions against him, while his lawyer indicates on October 6, 2019 that he does not speak on behalf of a single whistleblower thus taken apart but of a plurality people who gave information against the President of the United States. Even the most imaginative scriptwriters would not have written twists as abruptly or so fast. Spectators, we wait for the next episode, secretly hoping for climbs and slashs.
Precisely if we go to the cinema, it is still a whistleblower whose dedication and success, or even drama, we are told, for the benefit of the global society, and especially of Democracy, since the secrets are fought for the benefit of the truth. Thus, the movie The Secret Man designates Mark Felt as the first whistleblower. Returning to what is often presented as a more "serious" media, for example in France the radio "France Culture" we can learn the story of a historian who worked as an archivist on events that the political power would have wanted to keep hidden by possibly destroying their traces but that his profession led to preserve
It is also a topic of legislative debate since in the United States the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 inserted in the 1934 law that established the Securities & Exchanges Commission (SEC) a complete system for retribution and remuneration of whistleblowers, while after elaborating guidelines about about in 2012
In Europe, the Directive first approved by a Resolution of the European Parliament on 16 April 2019 on protection of persons reporting breaches of Union law and then adopted on 7 October 2019 (Directive 2019/78 (EU) of the European Parliament European Union and the Council of the European Union on the Protection of Persons Reporting Breaches of Union law, will have to be transposed in the next two years to the legal systems of the Member States. is not general, since only "violations of European Union Law" are targeted but the character of the "whistleblower" is more generally referred to: it is "whole"
In short, the whistleblower is a star
Recognized by national legislations, which associate to him a legal regime of protection to such a point that, like a tunic of Nessus, it is this legal regime which will define his character and not the opposite. When we read the French law of December 9, 2016 relative à la transparence à la lutte contre la corruption et à la modernisation de la vie économique (on transparency in the fight against corruption and the modernization of economic life), usually known as "Sapin 2 Act", we note that the lawmaker makes much of this character, because he devotes to him the chapter II: "De la protection des
But why a plural? Certainly when we read the recitals of the European Directive of 7 October 2019 on the protection of whistleblowers
Thus seem to contradict in this law "Sapin 2" itself the very title which presents the character, in that it uses a definite plural ("the whistleblowers") while the article of definition which presents the topic does it by using the singular indefinite : "a whistleblower....".
This is a first reason to move forward only in a very cautious way, in this "step by step" that constitutes a word-by-word reading: a gloss. This method consists in taking literally the expression itself. The second reason for this technical choice is that the gloss is well suited to an introduction of a collective work, allowing more specific developments to take place in other contributions, for example on the techniques, the difficulties and the limits of this protection, or the history of it, or the reasons for the arrival in French law of these American or Brithish whistleblowers and the way they develop, or not, in other legal systems or other countries.
I will therefore content myself with taking again literally this already legal expression: The (I) launchers (II) of alert (III).
See below developments.
On the more general fact that cinema is undoubtedly the medium which most seriously restores the state of the Law, c. Frison-Roche, M.-A., Au coeur du Droit, du cinéma et de la famille : la vie, 2016.
L'histoire du premier lanceur d'alerte, France Culture, septembre 2019.
However, precisely the so common use of plurality ("whistleblowers") raises doubts about the uniqueness of the character. On this question, see. all the first part of the developments of this study, which leads to the conclusion rather than beyond the multitude of particular cases, there are rather two kinds of whistleblowers. V. infra I.
The director of the film La fille de Brest says that she considers the whistleblower at the origin of the case of the Pick as a "movie character".
Thus, the adventures of Snowden were brought to the screen by Oliver Stone in 2016, Snowden. On the question of knowing whether this film "faithfully reproduces" or not the case, Schetizer, P., Le film Snowden est-il à la hauteur de la réalité?, 2017. This article is favorable to the whistleblower, and to the film which tells us with emotion his case, in particular because (sic), it is easier than to read the Washington Post.
Underlined by us.
Underlined by us.
About this directive, v. the developments infra
Underlined by us.
Updated: Sept. 25, 2019 (Initial publication: June 17, 2019)
This working document is the basis for an article published in the Archives of Philosophy of Law (APD).
Summary: Painting so well that the canvas is a living object is a technical feat that was achieved by little
In numerous writings and interviews, The painter Francis Bacon explains his act as a painter: it is "preserving the vitality of the canvas". In the book he devoted to it, Gilles Deleuze pointed out that Bacon said that "the procedures used do not force the Figure to stand still"
With the same pedagogical friendliness, in numerous writings and interviews, the jurist Carbonnier explains his act as a legislator, in particular in his collection of texts Essais sur les lois: legislate well, and let life unfold through texts, well after their adoption, because posed on pages which are never white, written compositions which are only the "varnish" of the life which must be able to throb in these Laws which one presents however so often but so strangely as "engraved in marble ". While on the contrary it is only a question of "preserving" the vitality of what is under the letter of the Law, the life of each one, life which does not resemble that of the neighbor, to obtain that the web of the legislative system is so flexible that this system lives by itself after the promulgation of the texts.
But it may seem to force the line to find elements common to two characters who undoubtedly were unaware of their reciprocal existence or at least, although living at the same time, did not appear similar. Before showing how similar their action is, therefore, put them face to face beforehand.
PREREQUISITES REQUIRED: FACING FRANCIS BACON AND JEAN CARBONNIER
Thus, the family painted in broad outlines by a few new articles of the Civil Code written by Carbonnier could nevertheless flourish afterwards, in each family, without the need to rewrite the text. One might be surprised that Carbonnier expressly only likes the Law and not the judiciary, this association of the Right to the Law often being worth rigidity; yet - and the formula made him famous - he conceived of the Law as only "flexible", without recognizing the judge as a general source of the Law, without recognizing him the power to soften over time the edge of the adapted law formerly, then once. In fact, the Flexible Droit volume brings together almost only texts relating to laws, while in his latest work, Droit et passion du Droit sous la Vième République, he challenges the influence of the courts over the Law.
Carbonnier abides by the Law. These laws which we are constantly told us that their quality should be never to move .... And to evoke in order to convince us the imperative of legal certainty, predictability, etc., each new report on the subject saying the same thing as the previous one, this one serving as a reference for the next one.
Thus, all these numerous works explain to us that, in the ideal towards which one should tend, the Law does not move in the main lines while the judge, by "jurisprudence" comes to adapt it and that thanks to "dialogue ", even to the" dialectic "between legislation and jurisprudence", cahin-caha we arrive at something suitable. In practice. And here is legal security well served, since it would be the only concern. A universal model to apply everywhere , at everything.
But this presentation, now very common and also constituting the vulgate of the economic analysis of law, does not correspond to the conception of Carbonnier, who did not admit the creative power of the Judge, being, like Motulsky, above all a jurist . Because if he asked as a question "Any law in itself is an evil?", It is only to answer it firmly: No, going so far as to compare in this article the announcement of a new law with the announcement made by the angel Gabriel.
Perhaps it is his attachment to the Law, his refusal to consider the jurisprudence as the source of the law, his respect for the legal matter itself that make his work today less cited than the work of sociologists who do not know not more the legal technique than the economists who describe the "legal regulation" to adopt to be effective? It should also be noted that its legislative art is little used today
It is true that to make a painting, to have the strength to fade in front of your canvas, you must master the technicality to return to the childhood of art, ambition of all artists, all teachers, all the Masters. Francis Bacon, also a wise reader of writers, rejecting the modern opposition between painted lines and written texts, repeated at each interview that he awaits "the accident" which comes alone to get the flesh out of the skin that traps him
The theme of Carbonnier Sociologie juridique's book is this necessary presence of law in a sociological analysis which would not betray the law presented while managing to keep its distance: that is to say, let it breathe, allowing us to watch live. This is why, like Truffaut, he took an interest in children's pocket money.
By a game of mirrors, Carbonnier explained, for example about the reform he conceived of the Law of matrimonial regimes and whose genesis he explained in an article in L'Année sociologique
Admittedly, one could underline that if Francis Bacon signed his tables, which attaches to him the work and holds the Figure which moves there, it was not the case for Carbonnier. You must already be a scholar to know that the author of the train of reforms of the XXth century which transformed the Civil Code has for patronym "Jean Carbonnier": the Legislator is an abstract character, who, like the State, always carries this same title , like the King, and passes indifferently from head to head, from the dead instant to the crowned instant. Whoever looks at the painting will attribute it to Francis Bacon because it is written on it, while on the contrary he will designate for example the law of July 15, 1975 as the law reforming the law of divorce, without referring to the human being who designed it. Yes, it is the Parliament, which, in the name of the People via the Representation, is the author of the Laws. And not such and such.
So the comparison would not be worth. But let's take a detour by Romain Gary. The action of this one showed what one could call "the right of the literature", ie what can go the power of this one. Its power is so great that the author can never appear in it
There is no need to go to Law & Literrature, a current which dries up the Law rather to cover it with a conception of the Law as a fabric of strategic lies and retrospective narratives of justification of decisions. No, Carbonnier, far too erudite and far too good a jurist to go towards a thought above all critical of an object, made sociology to show us a living Law and at the same time had a sociological conception of Legislative Art , writing laws which capture in their austere lines the daily and various lives which will come after the writing of a law which writes only in capital letters, general, aiming nothing special so that the particular remains in the hands of each individual
But how, if we get the judge out of the normative game, can the law be "flexible"? If not by drawing up laws which "preserve" in themselves, in their "canvas" even their vitality, which allows them to move, in an ink which must never be dry or reach marble?
Why not make the connection between the two creators, Francis Bacon and Jean Carbonnier?
How even not to do it, the design and the method are so similar to them.
When Bacon paints scenes of daily life as a field of ruin, while Carbonnier aims only "the interest of the child", on which one glosses so much, only as "a key which opens on a vacant lot"
For the two authors, painting for one and the law for the other, both must tear them away from their static support so that there is expressed and "preserves" life in its mobility itself. Even more, it is thanks to this support, which we thought motionless, that the fluidity of life appears to us. Thus life is, for them, the common object of painting and the law. This definition is carried by few people, because we find so often in the presentations which are made of the Law the imperative of a choice to operate, to put on the side of the immobile or on the side of the mobile, but not this conception of mobility expressed by an immobile support (I). It must be recognized that few have the level of technical mastery and thinking of Bacon and Carbonnier.
But if we go back to Carbonnier's conception of the law, while at a distance, as would do, in his own words, in his own country a "foreign" legislator
The two authors thus put life at the center, one of the tables, the other of the laws. Yet two motionless objects, some made of "canvas", others made of "marble".
But both wanted - emphasizing the difficulty of the task - forcibly reinserted into the materially intrinsic immobility of the object - the canvas of the table that the flaking of the paint by the passage of time will damage , the letter of the Law that subsequent reforms will challenge - life. That is to say, finally give them their true object. And yet impossible to restore. And they got there. Undoubtedly by their own qualities: mastered technicality, modesty, perseverance, effacement before life itself which unfolds and occupies all the space and "does its work" on the support, which becomes mobile. Thus Francis Bacon's paintings move as the laws written by Carbonnier live, which is natural since it was directly inserted. What modesty was it worth to fade to this point.
Achieve by technical prowess that life is still throbbing in the canvas, in the text published in the Official Journal. Only in what by nature is fixed: the canvas, the Law, not only does life still throb, as if by "inadvertence", as Francis Bacon says, because life has a hard life, but because the masters that they were so delicate and so masters of their Art that they made everything that it was the very object of their work: the canvas of the picture was for Francis Bacon what life was made of, the marble of the law was for Carbonnier that by law life was made.
So as when the Master of Sewing removes the thread, the canvas no longer exists, the diary has long been lost, but life is still there. This is no coincidence, as sociologists who seem to boast of knowing nothing about law seem to present, speak of a "legislative vacuum" and always ask for more "new laws", sometimes stressing that Carbonnier was also arbitrary in law that bad in sociology - because there is to say it.
On the contrary, it is the Law bringing to its perfection: practical art, the Law relates to life and if in advance, in its very conception, it knows how to fade in front of life, it then joins in practice the art of painting because it takes a painter to force life on canvas (I). This requires a painter, because we often talk about legislative art but it is also appropriate to talk about artists who hold the pen. These do not "regulate", they draw a picture which, through the effect of correspondence, can let life continue to unfold because the ink is never dry. Of this table, it is the law which forms the framework, a light framework which allows to keep contours to what is the Right and what is not. Carbonnier always knew that in relation to life, Law was only a "thin varnish". Like all great masters, it was modest, drawing up great pictures, that were the complete reforms of the Civil Code that he wrote, never forgetting to conceive them only as a varnish so that life always finds its way out, breathe, in the same movement of a woman coming down the stairs or of a Pope who rules on his throne (II).
Il est remarquable que pour Bacon, Van Gogh, que le premier considére comme un "héros", a peint d'une "façon littérale" et que c'est grâce à celui qu'il a pu grâce à son "technicité" restitué "la vie" désertique du paysage.
Deleuze, G., Francis Bacon, rééd. par Badiou, A. et Cassin, B.,
...., in Verdier, R. (dir.), Jean Carbonnier. L'homme et l'oeuvre.
Comment dès lors ne pas penser à la définition de l'écriture par Céline, la définition comme le fait de tanner sa peau sur la table de l'écrivain ?
Terré, Fr., Jean Carbonnier et l'année sociologique, L'Année sociologique, 2007/2, vol.57, pp.555-569.
"le droit de la littérature est de n'y apparaître jamais comme auteur".
Comme le souligne très bien Frédérique Niboyer, pour montrer que les lois actuelles qui visent tous le cas possibles (ce qui est impossible) empruntent une méthode contraire à celle de Carbonnier : ""Le doyen Carbonnier avait une autre conception : une loi générale devait pouvoir s’adapter à tous (d’où le pluralisme du droit de la famille) tout en ouvrant des champs à d’autres ordres normatifs, alors qu’aujourd’hui le « légicentrisme » devient roi : la seule norme à laquelle on fasse confiance serait ici la loi qui, partant, doit être spécialisée pour chaque catégorie.".
Cité par Frédérique Niboyet, L'héritage de Carbonnier dans le droit matrimonial actuel : entre continuité et rupture, 2012, n°5.
Carbonnier, "A beau mentir qui vient de loin",
Updated: Sept. 24, 2019 (Initial publication: Aug. 31, 2019)
Summary : In August 2019, about the fire devastating the Amazon, the French Minister of Ecology says that this fact "is not just the business of a state" (n'est pas que l'affaire d'un Etat). This assertion denies the postulates of Public International Iaw (I). This supposes a new system, based on the idea that the power of the State on its territory is erased when the object that is there is no longer related to this "part" but to the All that is Universe (II). Let's accept the augur. First question: if it is not only the case of a State, whose business is it? (III). Second question: to anticipate the other cases that fall under this regime, what should be the criteria in the name of which the All will have to prevail over the part and who will then take care of the case of which the "local" State is divested? (IV). Because the perspective goes beyond the environment, beyond Brazil, beyond the States. It leads to Compliance Law animated by "monumental goals" that are the concern for the Universe and humans, in a humanist spirit. Let's go.
On August 27, 2019, on the French radio France Inter, Elisabeth Borne, French Minister of Ecology (Transition écologique) expresses it clearly: "Quand on est sur un enjeu tel que l'Amazonie, ça n'est pas que l'affaire d'un État", that can be translated : "When we are on a stake such as the Amazon, it is not only the business of one State ".
Starting from one case, "the Amazon", the Minister, thus taking up the position of the French President, associates a general consequence: "it is not only the affair of one State".
This is not a trivial sentence.
This affirmation denies, and why not, the entire system of Public International Law (I). By a new reasoning based on the idea that the All prevails, as by an effect of nature, on the Part (II).
Admitting this, it leads to opening two sets of questions. The first is related to the following main question: if it is not only the case of one State, of which is this the concern (III)? The second set of questions revolves around the questioning of the criteria on behalf of which other cases must be seized in the name of "All " and how to do it (IV).
A. The postulate of Public (and Private) International Law: parties (States) which, because of common interests, are in contact
The notion of State includes in its very definition the notion of territory (a territory, a population, institutions).
Thus the State governs through its institutions what is happening on its territory. For example, if there is a fire, or a risk of fire, the State makes arrangements through all legal, financial, technical and human instruments available to it. It is accountable for what it does through its political and legal responsibility.
When what is happening on its territory exceeds this one, in fact (epidemic, catastrophe with the consequences exceeding the borders, migrations, etc.) either according to its own opinion or according to that of the other States, the States, being sovereign subjects of Law in the international system, act together on a pre-built legal basis: bilateral or/and multilateral treaties!footnote-1675, having created legal integrated zones (like the European Union or the United States) or international institutions (like the IMF).
A particular technique has been developed for several millennia - but here again the seniority is not sufficient to keep the system: diplomacy, anchored in each state in a particular ministry: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which each national government has. If one State totally excludes one phenomenon in the territory of another, the progressive procedure of ceasing diplomatic ties begins.
This can result in wars.
In the "case of the Amazon" both the President of Brazil and the President of the United States stick to the classical construction of Law.
Indeed, the former asserted that the Amazon is in the territory of Brazil, thus falls under the jurisdiction of the power of the Brazilian State and the Brazilian Law, from which it follows that another State does not have to come to interfere. However, the French President takes the floor not as this forest extends also on a French territory but as it is the business of the World. On the contrary, the President of Brazil claims the closing effect, which excludes a third State from taking over directly something - even a difficulty - that takes place in the territory of another.
The President of the US federal State has said that these are joint decisions between the President of Brazil and other heads of State, sovereign subjects of Law, who must agree to organize a solution to solve a local problem . Because in the same way that States can declare war, they can help each other!footnote-1676.
The whole Public (and Private) International Law is therefore based on this assumption: "parts" of the world, on which sovereign parties (States) have taken contact, because circumstances make something that falls within one of them or several others.
This is precisely what is called into question. The notion of the "right of interference", whose evocation we hardly hear any more, had already done so. But on another basis.
B. The "right of interference": idea that somebody can directly interfere with what happens in a country , an idea that does not question the postulate of the International Maw, an idea that rests on something else: a " right for the other "
The "right of interference" is the idea that in certain territories, things happen that are inadmissible.
In memory of the jus cogens, a kind of "Natural Law" of Public International Law, Another, that could be another state, can come to meddle with what is happening in a territory that is closed, without declaring war. to the state that keeps its borders.
It is the need of others, for example those who die in mass on this territory, or the nature that is devastated in the indifference of the State on whose soil the disaster is happening, which founds this "right" of another state to come and take charge.
The foundation of this "right" is therefore a "duty".
C. The new idea: a territory is only part of the Globe, whose fate is everyone's concern
The idea is new because it is not based on altruism. And no more about self-interest. Yet, de facto and de jure , the Amazon is not on the sole territory of Brazil.
France is particularly well placed to say something about it since part of the Amazon is on French territory.
Thus the inaction of the main concerned Brazil directly affects the interest of France, a "forest" being a block that can not be divided. If we were in Property Law, we would say that we are in indivision with Brazil and that in this respect, with the other States on whose territories this forest extends, a solution must be found.
Because of the indivisibility of this particular object which is this particular fores!footnote-1644, it is necessary that the States whose territory is concerned have a say in the matter.
But this is not the argument put forward by France, particularly by the President of the Republic.
It is said that the whole world is concerned about the fate of the Amazon. It could be said that, in this respect, when what could be described as a "global forest" is well treated, its management does indeed fall within the power of Brazil, Brazilian companies and the Brazilian State, but when it is abused to the point of seeing its future compromised, when fires may make it disappear, then this forest appears not to be localized in Brazil but being located in the World, of which Brazil is only a part!footnote-1648.
This reasoning, which then gives voice to everyone, for in the world every state is included in it, is a new reasoning.
The economic-political theory of the "commons" does not account for it because it is not a very legal theory!footnote-1656.
II. THE NEW REASONING THAT COVERS THE CLASSIC REASONING OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW
The new reasoning adopted by the Minister consists in saying that the Amazon does not concern only Brazil. This forest should therefore be directly related to the World (A). This is a welcome change in the system but based on a paradox (B).
A. When the Amazon is in danger of death, then it should no longer be attached to this part of the World that is Brazil, but directly to the World
This forest is presented as the "lung" of the planet, it is the "future" of humanity. In this, it can concern only one State, not even the one on whose territory this "Humanity good" is located!footnote-1643.
As such, without the need to declare war to Brazil, another State may speak, for example the French State through the one that represents it in the international order, that is to say its President, to say what to do, since according to him the President of Brazil does not say or do what it is absolutely necessary to do for the whole planet and for the future of Humanity.
This induces a complete renewal of international institutions.
Indeed a direct attachment to the World and no longer to Brazil gives the forest object a special status because of a goal that exceeds Brazil: save the Amazon would impose because it would save the world. Therefore, it can no longer be the subject of Brazil, which would be like "dispossessed" by a goal that is imposed on it: to save the Amazon rainforest, even though it is mainly on its territory, while other States become legitimate to dispose of this object, even if the forest would not be in part in their territory, even if they would not be affected in their own interests.
This contradicts all Public International Law!footnote-1645; because the agreement of the political representatives of Brazil is no longer required and no one yet evokes the need to declare war to Brazil, and fortunately!
Such an upheaval justifies that such an affirmation is accepted with difficulty. One understands better than first consequence, which is not so innocuous, one of the first rules of diplomacy which is the politeness, between the heads of state, with regard to the spouses of these , have be broken!footnote-1657, that the remarks have slipped on personal questions, etc.
B. A welcome but paradoxical change in the system
Why not change the system?
This is difficult to admit, not only because it is brutal, but because it is paradoxical.
The paradox is the following. It is recognized that the theme of the disappearance of borders by "globalization"!footnote-1647 no longer reproduces the reality of facts!footnote-1646, especially not the Chinese situation, the digitalization having on the contrary allowed the construction of even stronger boundaries. What we called "globalization" now belongs to the pastWhat we called "globalization" now belongs to the past!footnote-1660. So today we should recognize on one side the reality of borders - which had not disappeared or are reborn - but only to better step over them, since - based on the concern of the world - states, yet each in their borders, would be legitimate to go directly to intervene in the business of others.
The paradox is therefore, on the one hand, the rejection of the allegation of a de facto disappearance of borders by an economic interdependence, technology having denied "globalization" as a fact !footnote-1649 and the linked resurgence of borders allowing States to affirm more than ever that they would be "sovereign masters at home", which should logically lead to let Brazil decide for the Amazon, while yet on the other side we witness the questioning of the postulate of Public International Law as recognition of sovereignty and construction from agreements between states, requiring the agreement of the state whose territory is concerned (except war), questioning which leads to allow all to meddle with the fate of the Amazon, as if there was no border.
This paradox leads to two questions.
The first question is: if "it's not juste one State affair", who's concerned?
The second question is: after the "case of the Amazon", what are the other cases? And how are we going to provide solutions, if we no longer have the solutions of Public International Law, that is to say, the agreement of the country whose territory is concerned and which we do not want not go to war?
If we have clear ideas on the answers to be given to these two sets of questions, then because indeed when the future of all is in progress it can not be the affair of a single State, it is necessary to question Public International Law. But do we have clear ideas on these two questions? And what are the possibilities for possible solutions?
See the text following below.
Updated: Sept. 5, 2019 (Initial publication: April 30, 2019)
► Full Reference : Frison-Roche, M.-A., L'apport du Droit de la Compliance dans la Gouvernance d'Internet (The contribution of Compliance Law to the Internet Governance), Report asked by the French Government, published the 15th July 2019, 139 p.
► Report Summary. Governing the Internet? Compliance Law can help.
Compliance Law is for the Policy Maker to aim for global goals that they requires to be achieved by companies in a position to do so. In the digital space built on the sole principle of Liberty, the Politics must insert a second principle: the Person. The respect of this One, in balance with the Freedom, can be required by the Policy Maker via Compliance Law, which internalises this specific pretention in the digital companies. Liberalism and Humanism become the two pillars of Internet Governance.
The humanism of European Compliance Law then enriches US Compliance law. The crucial digital operators thus forced, like Facebook, YouTube, Google, etc., must then exercise powers only to better achieve these goals to protect persons (against hatred, inadequate exploitation of data, terrorism, violation of intellectual property, etc.). They must guarantee the rights of individuals, including intellectual property rights. To do this, they must be recognized as "second level regulators", supervised by Public Authorities.
This governance of the Internet by Compliance Law is ongoing. By the European Banking Union. By green finance. By the GDPR. We must force the line and give unity and simplicity that are still lacking, by infusing a political dimension to Compliance: the Person. The European Court of Justice has always done it. The European Commission through its DG Connect is ready.
► Plan of the Report (4 chapters): an ascertainment of the digitization of the world (1), the challenge of civilization that this constitutes (2), the relations of Compliance mechanisms as it should be conceived between Europe and the United States, not to mention that the world is not limited to them, with the concrete solutions that result from this (3) and concrete practical solutions to better organize an effective digital governance, inspired by what is particularly in the banking sector, and continuing what has already been done in Europe in the digital field, which has already made it exemplary and what it must continue, France can be force of proposal by the example (4).
💬 Read the interview published the 18 July 2019 : "Gouvernance d'Internet : un enjeu de civilisation" ( "Governing Internet: an Issue of Civilization"), given in French,
🏛 Presentation of the Report to the Conseil Supérieur de l'Audiovisuel- CSA (French Council of Audiovisual) on Septembre 5, by a discussion with its members presentation (in French)
💬 Read the Interview published the 20 December 2019 : "Le droit de la compliance pour réguler l'Internet" ("Compliance Law for regulate Internet"), given in French
read below the 54 propositions of the Report ⤵️
Aug. 22, 2019
Le consentement que les intéressés avaient apporté ne suffit pas à légitimer l'application qui leur est faite du mécanisme de reconnaissance faciale : décision de l'Autorité suédoise de protection de la vie privée d'août 2019
En matière de Compliance, il y a deux sujets à la fois très importants et très incertains : celui de l'admission ou non des technologies de reconnaissance faciale ; celui de la forme et et de la place du "consentement" quelque soit la technique de captation, conservation et utilisation de l'information.
I. LE CAS
Une école suédoise doit en application de la loi nationale faire l'appel de chaque élève à chaque cours. Une Ecole supérieur a calculé que cette tâche, qui incombe donc à chaque enseignant en début de cours, représente un nombre d'heures important, qui pourrait être mieux utilisées par ceux-ci. Elle demande donc à une entreprise de technologie, Tieto, de développer pour elle des technologies qui redonnent aux enseignants leur temps.
L'entreprise Tieto conçoit un programme pilote, comprenant un procédé de reconnaissance faciale par la pupille de l'oeil, comptant ainsi les élèves présents. Les 21 élèves qui suivent le programme pilote apportent leur consentement express pour l'ensemble des technologies utilisées, notamment celle-ci.
Mais en février 2019 l'Autorité suédoise de surveillance, d'inspection et de protection des données poursuit l'entreprise qui a fourni cette technologie et l'école qui en a bénéficié pour violation du Réglement européen dit "RGPD".
L'école se prévaut du consentement libre et éclairé qui lui a été apporté par les élèves, tandis que le fournisseur de la technologie justifie l'usage de celle-ci par le fait qu'ainsi l'équivalent de 10 emplois à plein temps sont annuellement économisés pour des tâches mécaniques.
II. LA SOLUTION
Ces moyens n'ont pas convaincu l'Autorité.
Sur la question de l'efficacité du procédé, il ne semble pas même y être répondu, car tous ces mécanismes sont à l'évidence performants, car la protection des personnes est sans conteste coûteuse.
Mais sur la question du consentement, il est mentionné que le moyen tiré du consentement des élèves n'est pas retenu en raison du fait qu'ils n'étaient pas autonomes de l'établissemnt bénéficiaire de la technique de reconnaissance et qu'à ce titre le consentement n'avait donc pas de portée.
L'usage de cette technique est donc interdicte.
Mais l'Autorité ne se contente pas d'une interdiction. Elle indique qu'il convient, puisque les opérateurs en sont encore au stade d'un programme pilote d'ensemble de trouver ce que l'Autorité appelle un mode de contrôle des présences "moins intrusifs", car c'est en tant que l'ensemble prenait les élèves dans leur environnement toute la journée que cela n'était pas admissible.
III. LA PORTEE
Ce n'est pas donc une décision de principe.
C'est plutôt une décision d'espèce, en raison des circonstances qui vont que d'une part le consentement ne traduisait pas une volonté libre. Si les élèves n'avaient pas été ce que l'Autorité appelle la "dépendance" de l'établissement, alors sans doute leur acceptation de ces contrôles aurait eu de la portée.
S'il faut trouver un principe, il est par déduction celui-ci : le "consentement" n'est pas une notion autonome, suffisant à elle-seule à valider les technologies au regard du RGPD. Ce n'est qu'en tant qu'elle traduit une "volonté libre" que le "consentement" a pour effet de soumettre la personne qui l'émet à une technologie qui pourtant la menace autant qu'elle la sert.
C'est bien ce lien entre "consentement" et "volonté" que le RGPD veut garantir. C'est bien ce lien - de nature probatoire -, le consentement devant être la preuve d'une volonté libre, que le dispositif de Droit de la Compliance veut protéger.
Dès lors, si l'émetteur du consentement est dans une situation de dépendance par rapport à l'entité qui bénéficie de la technologie (par exemple et en l'espèce l'école qui fait des économies grâce à la technologie, sans que cela n'apporte rien à l'élève), la présomption comme quoi son consentement est la preuve d'une volonté libre est brisé : c'est pourquoi le consentement ne peut plus valider l'usage de la technologie.
Sur la question du rapport entre le "consentement" et la "volonté" : v. Frison-Roche, M.-A., Oui au principe de la volonté, manifestation de la liberté, non aux consentements mécaniques, 2019.
Aug. 18, 2019
Le journal Les Echos nous le raconte.
Une personne physique sort le 15 août 2019 un rapport négatif sur une grande société cotée, General Electric (GE) en critiquant la façon dont celle-ci a évalué des risques liés à des titres financiers d'assurance qu'elle possède.
Cette personne, en diffusant une telle information, lance donc une alerte. Comme toute information, elle se répand immédiatement sur les marchés financiers.
Cela peut être un document comme un autre, chacun pouvant publier ce qu'il veut sur ce qu'il observe et formuler une opinion sur ce qu'il voit, anticipant telle ou telle conséquence.
Mais il se trouve que l'auteur est Harry Markopols.
Non pas que celui-ci soit particulièrement suivi pour des titres prestigieux (universitaires, etc.) ou des fonctions (régulateur ou juge, etc.), mais il se trouve qu'il avait révélé le comportement dissimulé - c'est le moins que l'on puisse dire - de Madoff.
Les marchés non seulement l'accréditent immédiatement du fait qu'il ait révélé une nouvelle "dissimulation" et en tirent la conséquence : le titre GE perd 10 %, parce que l'information qu'avait donnée GE sur son risque est désormais considérée comme fausse puisque celle donnée par Harry Markopols est considéré comme vraie.
Le cas est intéressant en ce que quelques jours ont suffi pour reprendre en cause ce scénario. Ce terme est sans doute adéquat en ce que le "lanceur d'alerte" correspond à un "personnage" de films plus qu'à une catégorie juridique. Et l'on en voit ici les inconvénients.
Ils sont ici de deux ordres. Le premier est le rythme qui fait que le "lancement" est immédiat, le dommage avéré, et que plus que jamais l'absence de catégorie juridique du lanceur d'alerte, personnage romantique et désintéressé ce qui ne renvoie à rien dans un système juridique qui a la sagesse de n'avoir pas ce romantisme, permet à n'importe qui de nuire. La solution française qui contraint à l'alerte interne montre sa supériorité. Car ce n'est pas tant de qualification juridique de la personne que de procédure dont nous avons besoin que de procédure. Or, pour l'instant de procédure à suivre avant de publier des "rapports" sur des entreprises, il n'y en a pas.
I. L'INCONVENIENT DE L'ABSENCE DE DEFINITION DU LANCEUR D'ALERTE DANS LE SYSTEME DE COMMON LAW
Conforme à sa tradition de Common Law, le Droit américain a fait connaissance avec le lanceur d'alerte à travers des cas, le cas Enron étant l'un des plus fameux. Il s'agit dond d'un héros.
A une époque où l'on recherche chez les super-héros le modèle du manager parfait, où l'on présente le lanceur d'alerte parfois comme un martyr, où de nombreux biopics sont consacrés à sa gloire, l'enfermer dans un statut serait comme l'étrangler.
C'est donc dans sa pleine liberté que le lanceur d'alerte extrait l'information que personne n'a, que l'entreprise veut dissimuler, que chacun pourtant gagnerait à avoir, et la donne à tous. Dans cette époque en quête de religiosité, il y a du Saint-Sébastien dans ce lanceur d'alerte contre lequel les Etats et les entreprises lancent tant de fléches, tandis que les réseaux sociaux le soutiennent.
Mais ici le problème technique qui apparaît est celui de la fiabilité de l'information. Car personne n'est en mesure techniquement de mesurer s'il y a eu ou non sous-évaluation des risques liés à ces produits... En Droit, et selon un principe général, ce qu'affirment les mandataires sociaux est présumé exact jusqu'à ce que l'inexactitude en soit démontrée. Or, ici l'exactitude de la dénégation par le lanceur a été créditée pendant quelques heures, uniquement par un effet de réputation.
Il a suffi que l'on apprenne qu'il a été payé par un opérateur de marché pour écrire ce rapport destructeur pour que les comportements s'inversent : le cours cesse d'être attaqué et devienne soutenu.
Comme le souligne à juste titre l'article des Echos, cela ressemble à une manipulation de cours et l'Autorité des marchés financiers, la Securities & Exchanges Commission (SEC) va certainement ouvrir une enquête.
Mais suffit-il d'être payé par un fonds pour cesser d'être pertinent ?
Non, ce qui est mis en doute c'est le rapport lui-même, dont la méthodologie - d'après ce qu'en rapporte l'article de presse - n'est pas suffisamment fiable.
Or, nous sommes ici confronté à un problème de temps : les marchés financiers sont si rapides qu'ils font directement à la conclusion des rapports sans en vérifier les prémisses, comme les analystes (car les marchés ne "lisent" pas) vont directement aux résultats des sociétés sans en lire les rapports de gestion.
Si l'on ne peut donc calmer les marchés financiers dont la fulgurance participe beaucoup de l'aveuglement, ici rattrapé par le seul fait que ce qui est perçu comme un conflit d'intérêt entraîne une reprise en mains de l'ensemble des fonds, il faudrait imposer une procédure.
II. L'ADEQUATION D'UNE PROCEDURE AFIN DE DIFFUSER SUR LE MARCHE DES INFORMATIONS
Le lanceur d'alerte participe de cette même catégorie très vaste et vague d'influenceurs, dont la parole a un effet sur les comportements, des investisseurs, des consommateurs, de l'opinion publique. Cela peut être problématique si ce qu'il dit n'est pas vrai, ou vraisemblable, ou le résultat d'une méthodologie sérieuse.
Or, rien dans le Droit américain ne le requiert.
L'on pourrait en Ex Post rechercher sa responsabilité, ce qui est une compensation insatisfaisante puisque le dommage pourra avoir été grand. Sauf à trouver des personnes ou entités qui, derrière ce personnage finalement peu idylliques, auraient mené un abus de marché. Mais quel chemin probatoire à parcourir....
Dès lors, la solution retenue par la France, pourtant souvent critiquée, est bien la meilleure : contraindre celui qui veut laisser l'alerte à saisir les mandataires sociaux s'il veut bénéficier du régime juridique du lanceur d'alerte, c'est-à-dire le fait de ne pas répondre des conséquences dommageable de ses révélations, même si elles s'avéraient par la suite infondées (car une alerte ne suppose pas une démonstration complète de faits avérés).
S'il s'agit de comptes, ces faits devraient être portées à la connaissance des auditeurs, car ce sont eux qui sont en titre pour s'inquiéter, eux-mêmes contraints par des cercles de personnes alertées, de présentations financières et comptables de risques ne correspondant pas à la réalité.
Ces cercles sont des conditions procédurales qui permettent un déploiement mesuré de la puissance de ce personnage par ailleurs nécessaire qu'est le lanceur d'alerte.
Si on les respecte pas, les poursuites en abus de marché et en responsabilité vont se multiplier.
Aug. 14, 2019
probationary lesson of the decision of 4 July 2019 of the Sanctions Commission of the French Anti-Corruption Agency: the President of the Agency, a prosecuting body only bears the burden of allegation and the company must prove the execution of its Compliance obligation, presumed if it complies with the recommendations of the Agency
Compliance Law, like Regulatory Law, of which it is an extension, is an Ex Ante Law.
It translates into a set of obligations that companies must perform to ensure that harmful behavior does not occur, such as bribery, money laundering, pollution, etc.
This results in "structural" obligations, such as the establishment of a risk map, a third-party vigilance system, internal controls, the adoption of codes.
The practical question that arises is whether to punish a company, it is necessary but it is sufficient that the company has not adopted these structural measures, or if it is also necessary that within it or through the persons whom it must be accountable (through the corporate officers and the employees, but also the suppliers, the sub-contractors, the financed operators, etc.) there were behaviors that Compliance Law prohibits, for example corruption, money laundering, pollution, safety-related accident, etc.
The question is probative. Its practical stake is considerable.
Because to obtain the conviction the prosecuting authority will have to demonstrate not only a failure in the structural device but also a behavioral failure.
Si l'on considère que le Droit de la Compliance est à la fois sur l'Ex Ante et sur l'Ex Post, alors l'autorité de poursuite qui requiert une sanction doit démontrer qu'il y a un comportement reprochable (Ex Post) et qu'à cela correspond une défaillance structurelle (par exemple le compte bancaire anormal n'a pas été signalé) ; si l'on considère que le Droit de la Compliance est purement en Ex Ante, alors même s'il n'y a pas de comportement reprochable en Ex Post, la seule défaillance structurelle suffit pour que l'entreprise qui doit l'organiser en son sein soit sanctionné.
If we consider that Compliance Law is both on the Ex Ante and the Ex Post, then the prosecuting authority that requires a sanction must show that there is a reprehensible behavior (Ex Post ) and that this corresponds to a structural failure (for example the abnormal bank account has not been reported); if we consider that Compliance Law is purely Ex Ante, then even if there is no reprehensible behavior in Ex Post, the only structural failure is enough for the company to be sanctioned, even if it does its best efforts, even if no prohibited behavior will have accured in Ex Post.
The second system, which is much more repressive and places a considerable burden on companies, even if there is no proven illicit behavior, is that of French Law, probably because of a tendency towards Ex Ante organization. ..
Mais il faut garder mesure. Et cette mesure est probatoire.
But we must keep measure. And this measure is probative.
This is what the Commission des Sanctions of the Agence Française Anticorruption -AFA (French Anti-Corruption Agency's Sanctions Committee) has just said, in its decision of 4 July 2019, SAS S. et Madame C.,(written in French) contradicting the position of its director, who acted as the prosecuting authority. This is yet another general proof of the autonomy of the Sanctions Committee vis-à-vis to the Administrative Authority of which it is a part, and in relation to its director, who nevertheless governs it. But, jurisdictional model obliges, he has here the status of prosecuting authority, is subject to the regime of this one and not to the regime of head of the entity. Demonstration of the "functional autonomy" of the sanctioning bodies within the administrative regulatory and compliance authorities.
Indeed, this important decision expresses with precision and reason the distribution of the "burden of the allegation" and the "burden of proof" on the prosecuting body and on the company pursued, as well as the role of presumption that the recommendations issued by the French Anti-corruption Authority can play.
Read the analysis below.